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Interview Questions and Answers for 'IBM' - 82 question(s) found - Order By Newest

Very Very frequently asked. Among the first few questions in almost all interviews.Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys etc, Based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant ( Based on 2 feedbacks )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q3. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies.
  Q4. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Recently asked in Accenture and Fidelity.
 Q5. Explain Flow of Spring MVC ?Spring
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. The DispatcherServlet configured in web.xml file receives the request.

The DispatcherServlet finds the appropriate Controller with the help of HandlerMapping and then invokes associated Controller.

Then the Controller executes the logic business logic and then returns ModeAndView object to the DispatcherServlet.

The DispatcherServlet determines the view from the ModelAndView object.

Then the DispatcherServlet passes the model object to the View.

The View is rendered and the Dispatcher Servlet sends the output to the Servlet container.

Finally Servlet Container sends the result back to the user.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q6. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q7. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q8. Why do we write public static void main ? Can we use some other syntax too for main ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans.
1. public is the access modifier that makes the method accessible from anywhere, static is the keyword that makes it accessible even without creating any object and using class name only , void means it doesnt return anything , String args[] is the array of argument that this method receives.

2. If I use Main , it will compile correctly as Java will treat it as just another method but it wont be the method "main" which Java looks for when it looks to execute the class and hence will throw

Error: Main method not found in class , please define the main method as:
public static void main(String[] args)

3. Main is not a keyword but a special string that Java looks for while initiating the main thread.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 2 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q9. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

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Frequently asked. Among first few questions in the J2EE segment of interview.
  Q10. What is the use of deployment descriptor ?Java EE2016-06-04 22:46:40

Ans. Deployment Descriptor which is usually web.xml is used to specify the classes, resources and configuration of the application and how the web server uses them to serve web requests.This file is usually added to WEB-INF folder and contains following

* Servlet entries and url mapping
* Plugins
* Some info regarding authentication / filters
* Landing Page
* Event Handlers

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives.
  Q11. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Advanced level question. Recently asked in few Indian service companies ( Based on 3 inputs )
 Q12. What are various types of Class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Bootstrap - Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages.

Extensions - Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory - usually lib/ext directory of the JRE

System - Loads classes from system classpath.

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  Q13. What are Inner , Outer , Left and Right Joins in SQL ?Database2017-01-09 13:07:55

Ans. Inner join is the intersection of two tables on the condition defined by the where clause i.e will get records from both tables matched by a column.

Outer join is the union of two tables i.e will get all records from both tables and will put null in the columns where related records are not present.

Left Outer join is the left union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the left and values from the right table for related records else null for the columns from right table.

Right Outer join is the right union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the right and values from the left table for related records else null for the columns from left table.

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  Q14. What are the different types of inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Simple Inner Class,
Local Inner Class,
Anonymous Inner Class,
Static Nested Inner Class.

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q15. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q16. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q17. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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 Q18. Difference between static vs. dynamic class loading?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. static loading - Classes are statically loaded with Java new operator.

dynamic class loading - Dynamic loading is a technique for programmatically invoking the functions of a class loader at run time.

Class.forName (Test className);

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 Q19. What is JAXB ?Xml
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Ans. Stands for Java API for XML Binding. This standard defines a mechanism for writing out Java objects as XML and for creating Java objects from XML structures.

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Frequently asked at HCL Technologies ( Based on 3 feedback )
  Q20. Difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Checked exceptions are the exceptions for which compiler throws an errors if they are not checked whereas unchecked exceptions are caught during run time only and hence can't be checked.

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Frequently asked.
  Q21. What is an Iterator?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Iterator is an interface that provides methods to iterate over any Collection.

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 Q22. Explain use of nested or inner classes ?
Anonymous
Ans. Sometime we just need classes or class objects just to be used as part of a particular class or objects. Making them non nested won't make any difference as far as functionality is concerner but making them Nested provide a level of convenience and protection fro, being used anywhere else. Moreover it helps reducing the Code.

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 Q23. What is marshalling ?Xml
Anonymous
Ans. Its the process of creating XML structures out of Java Objects.

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 Q24. What are the features of encapsulation ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Combine the data of our application and its manipulation at one place.

Encapsulation Allow the state of an object to be accessed and modified through behaviors.

Reduce the coupling of modules and increase the cohesion inside them.

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 Q25. What are different types of dependency injections ?Design 2017-11-07 09:37:47

Ans. Setter injection
Constructor injection
Interface injection
Look-up method/method injection

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 Q26. Which version control system you are using in your current project ?Tools
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Ans. We are using SVN and Git Hub.

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  Q27. Explain Application / Server architecture being used in your project ?
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Ans. We are using cluster of Web servers and Application servers. Load Balancer is used to manage the load between them. Down the layer we have middleware server and then DB server to access database.

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Frequently asked.
 Q28. What should a class do if its implementing an interface ?Core Java

Ans. It should either implement all interface methods or declare unimplemented methods as abstract.

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 Q29. What is a static variable in Java ?Core Java2016-07-19 11:20:35

Ans. It is a class level variable that is shared among the objects of that class.

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 Q30. What are the disadvantages of multithreading ?Core Java2016-10-11 08:47:41

Ans. 1. Switching Overheads - Even though multi threading aims at improving performance by reducing the wait time and hence improving overall throughput, there is a cost of switching resources between threads and sometime this cost can surpass the benefits if there isnt much wait for IO or external communication.

2. Debugging is hard with multi threaded code.

3. Deadlock - Execution of multi threaded code many a times lead to deadlock due to shared resources.

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 Q31. What is the difference between Controller and Task Command ?IBM WCS2016-10-12 00:52:48

Ans. Controller Command is the command that gets called upon a request, just like We have actions in struts and controller in Spring. Task is a step in this bigger process. Task command are the commands that perform specific task for a controller command, like service classes in other frameworks. In order to complete the request, a controller command may invoke multiple task commands.

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Frequently asked Design Pattern interview question.
 Q32. What is a prototype design pattern ?Design2016-11-04 08:06:01

Ans. The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern. It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. Prototype is used when we need duplicate copies of objects.

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 Q33. What is difference between Product and Item ?IBM WCS2016-11-14 16:53:10

Ans. Item is a sale-able merchandise where as Product is a group of sale-able merchandise which share certain attributes. For example - Cell phone is a product whereas Samsung Galaxy S2 - White is an item.

Quantity is always attached to SKU ( Stock keeping unit ) or items. Product quantity has no relevance in terms of identify the current stock or reorder condition.

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 Q34. Write a Java Program to check Armstrong Number ?Core Java2016-11-24 08:40:05

Ans. http://www.programmingsimplified.com/java/source-code/java-program-armstrong-number

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 Q35. Explain Agile Software Development Methodology ?Process2016-11-30 16:00:02

Ans. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development

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 Q36. How Promotions are created and stored in WCS ?IBM WCS2016-12-07 12:59:56

Ans. Promotions are created either using Management Center or Accelerator. PX_PROMOTION table is used to store Promotions. Complete Promotion is stored as an XML string within XMLPARAM column. Other tables which are used to store promotion related information are -

CATENTCALCD
CALCODE
CLCDPROMO

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 Q37. What is purchase condition and reward in promotions ?IBM WCS2016-12-28 22:51:04

Ans. Purchase condition is the condition that must be fulfilled before a promotion is applied and Reward is the benefit that is passed to customer.

For Example - If promotion is "Buy 2 Quantity of X, Get Y Free" , Purchase condition is inclusion of 2 qty of X in Cart. Reward in this case would be 1 qty of Y.

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 Q38. What steps are needed to create a new promotion type ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:44:46

Ans. a. Create necessary lzx files( template , object definition and properties ), make config entries and then Build open Laszlo project ( for LOBTools ) so that new promotion type should be displayed in management center.

b. Create a new promotion type xsl ( promotion type template ) and then map it to the promotion type.

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 Q39. How can you check the status of an ORDER ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:47:12

Ans. By querying the STATUS from the ORDERS table.

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 Q40. I want to collect email addresses of all Registered Users. Which table should I refer ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:47:43

Ans. ADDRESS

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 Q41. How can i get to know all the active promotions without going to management center ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:47:45

Ans. We can query the DB as follows

Select NAME from PX_PROMOTION where STATUS=1;

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 Q42. How can we remove a JSP page from getting cached ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:48:00

Ans. Remove the jsp entry from cachespec.xml.

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 Q43. Where do we store DB configuration and how can we change that ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:48:16

Ans. wc-server.xml stores the DB configuration. We can either change it manually or by using setdbtype command.

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 Q44. Which table holds the encrypted login password ?IBM WCS2017-01-06 17:56:49

Ans. USERREG

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 Q45. How can we enable promotion engine logs ?IBM WCS2017-01-07 11:14:58

Ans. By making Debug=true within WCSPromotionEngineConfig.xml

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 Q46. What are the steps to create a new business policy ?IBM WCS2017-01-07 11:15:17

Ans. Step 1 - Create a new policy definition by adding record in tables POLICY, POLICYDESC.
Step 3 - Associate commands to the new policy by adding records in POLICYCMD.
Step 2 - Associate the new policy with its terms and conditions by adding a record in relationship table POLICYTC.
Step 4 - Add reference to the policy in the repective contract xml file.

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 Q47. Define Business policy categories provided by WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-07 11:15:57

Ans. Catalog business policies

Catalog business policies define the scope and characteristics of the catalog of products for sale in a store including prices and the categorization of products in a store's catalog.

Payment business policies

Invoicing, payment, and refund business policies define how a store accepts payments, pays refunds, and the format of a store's invoices.

Returns business policies

Returns business policies define if refunds are accepted, the time period they are accepted for, and any re-stocking fees applied to returns.

Shipping business policies

Shipping business policies define the shipping providers a store can use and the charges associated with each type.

Referral interface business policies

Referral interface business policies define the relationship between a proxy store and a remote store.

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 Q48. Where do we specify the buyer seller relationship ?IBM WCS2017-01-07 11:16:14

Ans. In the contract xml files.

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  Q49. What is database Normalization ?Database2017-01-09 12:00:02

Ans. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_normalization

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  Q50. What is an exception and exception handling in Java ?Core Java2017-01-09 13:01:40

Ans. An Exception in java is the occurrence during computation that is anomalous and is not expected.

Exception handling is the mechanism which is used to handle such situations.


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 Q51. How Access control Policies are implemented in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:16:43

Ans. There are three elements i.e Users ( Who want access ) , Actions ( What kind of Access ) and Resources ( Whose Access ). The relationship between resource and user is store in ACRELATION table and ACRESREL associate a resource and relationship.

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 Q52. What are the tables used for Access control ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:17:01

Ans. ACPOLICY , ACPOLDESC , ACACTION , ACRELATION , ACRESREL , ACRESGRP

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 Q53. Who manages the Access control policies and How ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:17:19

Ans. Site Administrator and through Org Admin Console.

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 Q54. What are the design patterns used in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:17:34

Ans. MVC , Display Design and Command.

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 Q55. What is reload interval and where it is defined ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:17:51

Ans. reload interval or jsp caching interval is a parameter that indicates how frequently a JSP should be recompiled.

It is defined within

Stores.warWEB-INFibm-web-ext.xmi

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 Q56. What information is stored in CACHEIVL table and How does this help in caching ? IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:18:05

Ans. This table records the changes to product or category information in the database. This is referred by WCS for invalidating dynacache.

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 Q57. What are the different types of Auctions in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:18:35

Ans. open cry, sealed bid, and dutch

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 Q58. Can we schedule auctions and promotions in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:18:54

Ans. Yes

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 Q59. How do we set Auctions in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:19:10

Ans. Through Accelerator.

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 Q60. What is SKU ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:19:24

Ans. SKU is Stock keeping unit. Items are referred to as SKU as they are the narrowest identifier for which business needs to track quantity.

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 Q61. Why can't we add Products while specifying Target Catalog entry in Promotions?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:19:40

Ans. Product refer to category of Items and hence can't be associated to a particular Stock keeping unit. Items can only be targeted while creating promotions.

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 Q62. What is B2C and B2B Business model ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:19:57

Ans. B2C business deals with selling merchandise directly to consumers whereas B2B business deals with selling / coordination with other businesses ( partners , distributors , affiliates etc ) for selling merchandise.

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 Q63. Explain concept of Hubs and Extended site stores ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:20:14

Ans. Hub and Extended sites /stores are used in case of selling through partners and affiliates. Hub is the central site around which extended stores are created by/for the respective partner / affiliate. Store owner performs the extended site administrations whereas overall control over merchandise remains with the site.

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 Q64. What are eSpots and How do we manage them ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:20:30

Ans. eSpot is the mechanism in WCS to schedule and display dynamic content. Content management for these slots are done through Accelarator.

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 Q65. What are different Business Models supported by WCS ?IBM WCS2017-01-25 13:20:46

Ans. B2C , B2B , Supply Chain , Extended Sites.

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 Q66. What is dynacache and role of cachespec.xml in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:45:11

Ans. Dynacache in WCS is the object cache. Instead of creating objects again and again , the store objects are rendered on the basis of matched rules. Caching rules are stored in a configuration file called cachespec.xml.

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 Q67. Can we see objects cached in Dynacache ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:45:27

Ans. We can see , monitor and can even change dynacache manually but for that we need to install a seperate application provided by WCS.

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 Q68. How to enable Cross Site scripting protection in WCS ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:45:43

Ans. By specifying XSiteScriptingProtection within wc-server.xml. Prohibited characters and attributes are specified within XSiteScriptingProtection to protect the application from any XSS attach.

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 Q69. What is an Asset store ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:45:56

Ans. Asset stores are collections of sharable resources (business artifacts, business processes and storefront assets) that can be leveraged in other stores.

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 Q70. What is an Attribute Dictionary and What are its benefits ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:46:18

Ans. Attribute dictionary is a set of common attributes that can be reused by multiple products.

The attribute dictionary provides a central place to manage shared attributes, with the following features:
The ability to standardize attributes.
The ability to easily compare attributes shared by products and SKUs.
The ability to quickly change attributes in one place to affect all catalog entries.

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 Q71. Whats is a starter store ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:46:51

Ans. Its the default store that comes in built with WCS.

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 Q72. What is SAR file ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 14:47:08

Ans. Its the Store Archive that holds the store Assets in the compressed form.

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 Q73. What is a retriable command ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:04:43

Ans. A retriable command is a controller command that can re-execute itself after encountering a system-level exception during the command execution.

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 Q74. What are the benefits of Smart bean ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:05:06

Ans. A smart data bean uses a lazy fetch method to retrieve its own data. This type of data bean can provide better performance in situations where not all data from the access bean is required, since it retrieves data only as required.

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 Q75. Describe Marketing subsystem and What WCS components are part of this system ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:05:24

Ans. The Marketing subsystem is a component of the WebSphere Commerce Server, and provides numerous marketing concepts to your site, designed to increase brand awareness, and to attract and retain customers. Components of the marketing subsystem provide functionality to create marketing campaigns, including customer segments and advertising; and e-mail activities.

Various components are -

1. Promotions
2. Auctions
3. eSpots
4. e Mail Campaigns
5. Hubs and Extended sites for affiliates

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 Q76. Describe Catalog subsystem and the tables used in WCS for managing this ?IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:08:39

Ans. The catalog subsystem or Catalog Management provides online catalog navigation, partitioning, categorization, and associations. In addition, the catalog subsystem includes support for personalized interest lists and custom catalog display pages. The catalog subsystem contains all logic and data relevant to an online catalog, including catalog groups (or categories), catalog entries, and any associations or relationships among them.

Tables used for Catalog subsystem

1. CATENTRY
2. CATENTREL

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 Q77. Is it necessary to register controller command in CMDREG table ? IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:08:54

Ans. It is not necessary to enter data in the CMDREG table, but an entry should be made in the struts-config.xml. The controller command can be registered in the CMDREG table by xml and SQL query.

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 Q78. What are the tag libraries used in WCS ? IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:09:10

Ans. Core tags, sql , xml and fmt tags.

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 Q79. What is acugload?IBM WCS2017-02-02 15:09:25

Ans. acugload is the utility to load the user access group in the appropriate database.

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 Q80. What are the changes in Java 9 ?Core Java2017-05-07 08:37:28

Ans. JVM and JDK are getting smaller.

New command line tool called jshell that will add native support and popularize a Java way to REPL (Read-Eval-Print-Loop)

private methods in interfaces

Introduction of the module system or project Jigsaw

JavaDoc Search

Light version of JSON API

HTTP2 client



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 Q81. Explain Java 8 concurrency mechanism.Core Java2017-07-22 07:52:01

 This question was recently asked at 'IBM'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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 Q82. What is abstraction ?2017-10-13 09:23:38

 This question was recently asked at 'Tata Consultancy (TCS),HCL Technologies,Infosys,Deegit,Barclays,General Electric (GE),Capgemini,Accenture,Polaris,IBM,eGov Jamaica,Skillnet Solutions,Mastek,Avvo,Computer Science Corporation (CSC),Revature,Erricson,Allianz,Fidelity Information Services (FIS)'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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