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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Tata Consultancy (TCS)' - 49 question(s) found - Order By Newest

Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers. Among the first few questions in many interviews.
  Q1. What are the difference between composition and inheritance in Java?Core Java
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Ans. Composition - has-a relationship between classes.
Inheritance - is-a relationship between classes.

Composition - Composing object holds a reference to composing classes and hence relationship is loosely bound.
Inheritance - Derived object carries the base class definition in itself and hence its tightly bound.

Composition - Used in Dependency Injection
Inheritance - Used in Runtime Polymorphism

Composition - Single class objects can be composed within multiple classes.
Inheritance - Single class can only inherit 1 Class.

Composition - Its the relationship between objects.
Inheritance - Its the relationship between classes.

  Sample Code for inheritance

  Sample Code for composition

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 Q2. Which are the different segments of memory ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Stack Segment - Contains primitives, Class / Interface names and references.

2. Heap Segment - Contains all created objects in runtime, objects only plus their object attributes (instance variables), Static variables are also stored in heap.

3. Code Segment - The segment where the actual compiled Java bytecodes resides when loaded

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q3. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies.
  Q4. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
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Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q5. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very frequently asked across all types of companies.
  Q6. Difference between HashMap and Hashtable?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashtable is synchronized whereas HashMap is not.HashMap allows null values whereas Hashtable doesnt allow null values.

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  Q7. Difference between SAX and DOM Parser ?Xml
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Ans. A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document whereas A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure.

A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time whereas A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document whereas DOM parser is rich in functionality.

Use a DOM Parser if you need to refer to different document areas before giving back the information. Use SAX is you just need unrelated nuclear information from different areas.

Xerces, Crimson are SAX Parsers whereas XercesDOM, SunDOM, OracleDOM are DOM parsers.

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  Q8. What is a String Pool ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. String pool (String intern pool) is a special storage area in Java heap. When a string is created and if the string already exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned, instead of creating a new object and returning its reference.

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives.
  Q9. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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 Q10. What is Generalization and Specialization in terms of casting ?Core Java
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Ans. Generalization or UpCasting is a phenomenon where a sub class is prompted to a super class, and hence becomes more general. Generalization needs widening or up-casting. Specialization or DownCasting is a phenomenon where a super class is narrowed down to a sub class. Specialization needs narrowing or down-casting.

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 Q11. What are the contents of Hibernate configuration file ( hibernate.cfg.xml ) ?Hibernate
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Ans. HBM Files ( Mapping )
DB Connection ( DB Connection String , User Name , Password , Pool Size )
SQL Dialect ( SQL variant to be generated )
Show SQL ( Show / No show SQL on Console )
Auto Commit ( True / False )

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 2 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q12. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q13. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates.
 Q14. What is ACID ?Database2016-11-04 08:09:44

Ans. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability is a set of properties of database transactions.

Atomicity means all or nothing. i.e parts of a transaction shouldn't commit if any one of them fails. Either the whole transaction should succeed or it should be complete rollback.

Consistency means that any transaction should lead database from one stabe state to another.

Isolation means that the execution of transaction results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially.

Durability means that when a transaction is committed it forms the permanent state of database.

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q15. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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 Q16. If an Abstract class has only abstract methods, What's the difference between such a class and an interface ?Core Java2017-05-07 07:26:29

Ans. Such a class still can have member elements which can be inherited and hence facilitate code reuse. Moreover Abstract class can have non final static elements whereas interfaces are only allowed to have static final elements.

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  Q17. What are the different types of inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Simple Inner Class,
Local Inner Class,
Anonymous Inner Class,
Static Nested Inner Class.

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q18. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q19. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q20. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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  Q21. What is casting?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric types and casting between object references. Casting between numeric types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller values, such as byte values. Casting between object references is used to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or array type reference

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Very Frequently asked.Favorite question in Walk in drive for many Indian service companies.
 Q22. What is a Final Class ?
Anonymous
Ans. A Class that cannot be sub classed.

  Sample Code for final class

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 Q23. What is a Static import ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. By static import , we can access the static members of a class directly without prefixing it with the class name.

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Very frequently asked.Usually among first few questions.
  Q24. What is MVC ? Design
Anonymous
Ans. The Model/View/Controller pattern, a strategy for dividing responsibility in a GUI component.

The model is the data for the component.

The view is the visual presentation of the component on the screen.

The controller is responsible for reacting to events by changing the model.

According to the MVC pattern, these responsibilities should be handled by different objects.

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Very frequently asked in companies using SOA.
  Q25. What are RESTful Web Services ?Rest
Admin
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Ans. REST or Representational State Transfer is a flexible architecture style for creating web services that recommends the following guidelines -
1. http for client server communication,
2. XML / JSON as formatiing language ,
3. Simple URI as address for the services and,
4. stateless communication.

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Very frequently asked if being interviewed for hibernate. Frequently asked in Tata Consultancy (TCS) and Overstock.com
  Q26. Difference between load and get ?Hibernate
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Ans. If id doesnt exist in the DB load throws an exception whereas get returns null in that case.get makes the call to DB immediately whereas load makes the call to proxy.

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 Q27. Explain OOPs Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protected
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Frequently asked at HCL Technologies ( Based on 3 feedback )
  Q28. Difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Checked exceptions are the exceptions for which compiler throws an errors if they are not checked whereas unchecked exceptions are caught during run time only and hence can't be checked.

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Frequently asked.
  Q29. What is an Iterator?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Iterator is an interface that provides methods to iterate over any Collection.

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Very Frequently asked. Favorite question in walkins and telephonic interviews. Usually among first few questions. Asked in different variants. Must know for intermediate and expert professionals.Among Top 10 frequently asked questions.
  Q30. What is rule regarding overriding equals and hashCode method ?Core Java
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Ans. A Class must override the hashCode method if its overriding the equals method.

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Very frequently asked Hibernate interview question. Frequently asked in TCS ( based on 2 feedback )
  Q31. What are different types of associations in Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. There are 4 types of associations in Hibernate

One to One
One to Many
Many to One
Many to Many

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Very frequently asked. Usually followed by questions related to private constructor and synchronized access. Frequently asked in JPMorgan and TCS (Based on 2 feedback)
  Q32. Explain Singleton Design Pattern ?Design
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Ans. http://www.buggybread.com/2014/03/java-design-pattern-singleton-interview.html

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 Q33. Can we have foreign key reference to a non primary key column ?Database
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Ans. Yes, but the respective key in the foreign table should be declared Unique.

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Frequently asked in Tata Consultancy (TCS) interview ( Based on 2 Feedback )
 Q34. What are the technologies used in Jira ?Tools
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Ans. JIRA is written in Java and uses the Pico IOC container,Apache OFBiz entity engine, and WebWork technology stack. For remote procedure calls (RPC), JIRA supports REST, SOAP, and XML RPC.

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 Q35. What is collision in hash collections ?Core Java
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Ans. Collision is the situation when two different elements have the same Hash Code.

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  Q36. Explain Application / Server architecture being used in your project ?
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Ans. We are using cluster of Web servers and Application servers. Load Balancer is used to manage the load between them. Down the layer we have middleware server and then DB server to access database.

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Must know at all levels. Among Top 10 frequently asked questions in Java. Very frequently asked to fresh graduates or less experienced professionals.
  Q37. What is Inheritance ?Core Java

Ans. Its a facility for code reuse and independent extension wherein a derived class inherits the properties of parent class.

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 Q38. What was the driving force to introduce default methods in Interfaces wef from Java 8 ?Core Java2016-07-14 14:36:49

Ans. Earlier any class implementing an interface was supposed to implement all methods declared in an interface. There was no place for optionally implementing all or subset of methods.Though we have abstract classes wherein we could have provided such a mechanism by declaring some methods as abstract while providing definition for some. But as Abstract classes have a body and are comparatively heavier than interfaces and interfaces associate closely to the concept of providing interfacing than abstract classes, Java might have though of providing optional implementation for default methods. This way same interface can be reused in variety of ways rather than making copies of an interface to suit different needs.

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Frequently asked question in companies using Rest Web services.
 Q39. Different between POST and PUT in Rest Rest2016-07-22 14:33:40

Ans. PUT requests are only meant to place the object as it is on server. For example - You want a file to be uploaded and then placed in a particular folder or you want an Employee object to be persisted in the table.

POST requests are also meant to transfer information from client to server but that information once received at the server is evaluated , modified or refactored before persisting.

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 Q40. What are the benefits of Enums ?Core Java2016-09-07 09:05:01

Ans. Enums in Java are used to declare predefined objects and then reuse them. they offer many benefits

1. Enum instance are type safe and thread safe.

2. Enum instances are singleton and hence reused.

3. If we use Enums with Switch , It makes sure that the passed argument is either of its instance and hence provides a safeguard.

4. If we use Enum with Sorted Collections we can sort the elements with a predefined priorities ( as per constant declaration in enum )

5. We can use Enum as a Factory by defining its constructor.

6. We can store related constant data within enum. For example - If we know the values for the map upfront, we can alternatively use an enum.

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Frequently asked Design Pattern interview question.
 Q41. What is a prototype design pattern ?Design2016-11-04 08:06:01

Ans. The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern. It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. Prototype is used when we need duplicate copies of objects.

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Very Frequently asked to Senior Software Engineers or Developers.
  Q42. Describe some of the Design Patterns you have used ?Design2016-12-01 16:31:17

Ans. [Open Ended Answer]

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Frequently asked in high end product companies.
 Q43. How is Hashmap internally implemented in Java ?Core Java2016-12-06 08:49:37

Ans. https://www.quora.com/How-is-Hashmap-in-Java-implemented-internally-What-are-the-pros-and-cons-to-use-it-What-are-the-complexities-it-provides-for-insert-delete-and-lookup/answer/Anshudeep-Bajpai?srid=iwnK

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 Q44. What is a web service ?Java EE2016-12-13 14:36:35

Ans. A Web service is a service offered by one system to another, for communication over web through http. XML are JSON are usually used for sending across information from one system to another.

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 Q45. Scale yourself on Java on the scale of 1 to 10General2017-01-11 15:48:29

Ans. [Open Ended Answer]

The objective of the question is to check how efficient one is in the language so that appropriate level questions are asked. Don't tell too high number if you are being interviewed for a junior or mid level position as the interviewer may throw advance level questions.

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Usually asked to entry level software developers.
  Q46. Write a program to swap two variables without using thirdCore Java2017-01-19 15:38:34

Ans. public static void main(String[] args) {
   int num1 = 1;   
   int num2 = 2;
   num1 = num1^num2;
   num2 = num1^num2;
   num1 = num1^num2;
   System.out.print("num1 = " + num1 +", num2 = "+num2);
}

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 Q47. Which immutable classes have you worked with ? Can you name some immutable Collections ? How to make an immutable collection ?Core Java2017-08-28 17:11:22

 This question was recently asked at 'Ancestry,HCL Technologies,Tata Consultancy (TCS)'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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 Q48. What are annotations and what are it's advantages ?Core Java2017-09-06 20:27:29

 This question was recently asked at 'Tata Consultancy (TCS)'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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 Q49. What is abstraction ?2017-10-13 09:23:38

 This question was recently asked at 'Tata Consultancy (TCS),HCL Technologies,Infosys,Deegit,Barclays,General Electric (GE),Capgemini,Accenture,Polaris,IBM,eGov Jamaica,Skillnet Solutions,Mastek,Avvo,Computer Science Corporation (CSC),Revature,Erricson,Allianz,Fidelity Information Services (FIS)'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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