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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Tata Consultancy (TCS)' - 71 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers. Among the first few questions in many interviews.
  Q1. What are the difference between composition and inheritance in Java?Core Java
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Ans. Composition - has-a relationship between objects.
Inheritance - is-a relationship between classes.

Composition - Composing object holds a reference to composed objects and hence relationship is loosely bound.
Inheritance - Derived object carries the base class definition in itself and hence its tightly bound.

Composition - Used in Dependency Injection
Inheritance - Used in Runtime Polymorphism

Composition - Single class objects can be composed within multiple classes.
Inheritance - Single class can only inherit 1 Class.

Composition - Its the relationship between objects.
Inheritance - Its the relationship between classes.

  Sample Code for inheritance

  Sample Code for composition

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  Q2. Which are the different segments of memory ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Stack Segment - Contains primitives, Class / Interface names and references.

2. Heap Segment - Contains all created objects in runtime, objects only plus their object attributes (instance variables), Static variables are also stored in heap.

3. Code Segment - The segment where the actual compiled Java bytecodes resides when loaded

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Frequently asked question in companies using Hibernate.
  Q3. What is Lazy Initialization in Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. It's a feature to lazily initialize dependencies , relationship and associations from the Database. Any related references marked as @OneToMany or @ManyToMany are loaded lazily i.e when they are accessed and not when the parent is loaded.

  Sample Code for Lazy Initialization

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q4. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q5. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
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Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Recently asked in Accenture and Fidelity.
  Q6. Explain Flow of Spring MVC ?Spring
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Ans. The DispatcherServlet configured in web.xml file receives the request.

The DispatcherServlet finds the appropriate Controller with the help of HandlerMapping and then invokes associated Controller.

Then the Controller executes the logic business logic and then returns ModeAndView object to the DispatcherServlet.

The DispatcherServlet determines the view from the ModelAndView object.

Then the DispatcherServlet passes the model object to the View.

The View is rendered and the Dispatcher Servlet sends the output to the Servlet container.

Finally Servlet Container sends the result back to the user.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q7. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very frequently asked across all types of companies.
  Q8. Difference between HashMap and Hashtable?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashtable is synchronized whereas HashMap is not.HashMap allows null values whereas Hashtable doesnt allow null values.

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  Q9. Explain OOPs Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protected
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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  Q10. Difference between SAX and DOM Parser ?Xml
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Ans. A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document whereas A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure.

A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time whereas A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document whereas DOM parser is rich in functionality.

Use a DOM Parser if you need to refer to different document areas before giving back the information. Use SAX is you just need unrelated nuclear information from different areas.

Xerces, Crimson are SAX Parsers whereas XercesDOM, SunDOM, OracleDOM are DOM parsers.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q11. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q12. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q13. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q14. What are the different types of inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Simple Inner Class,
Local Inner Class,
Anonymous Inner Class,
Static Nested Inner Class.

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q15. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q16. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q17. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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  Q18. What is a String Pool ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. String pool (String intern pool) is a special storage area in Java heap. When a string is created and if the string already exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned, instead of creating a new object and returning its reference.

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  Q19. What is casting?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric types and casting between object references. Casting between numeric types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller values, such as byte values. Casting between object references is used to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or array type reference

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q20. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Very frequently asked in phone and walk in interviews.
  Q21. What are Marker Interfaces ? Name few Java marker interfaces ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. These are the interfaces which have no declared methods.Serializable and cloneable are marker interfaces.

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Very frequently asked.Usually among first few questions.
  Q22. What is MVC ? Design
Anonymous
Ans. MVC is a Design Pattern that facilititates loose coupling by segregating responsibilities in a Web application

1. Controller receives the requests and handles overall control of the request
2. Model holds majority of the Business logic, and
3. View comprise of the view objects and GUI component

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 Q23. What is Generalization and Specialization in terms of casting ?Core Java
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Ans. Generalization or UpCasting is a phenomenon where a sub class is prompted to a super class, and hence becomes more general. Generalization needs widening or up-casting. Specialization or DownCasting is a phenomenon where a super class is narrowed down to a sub class. Specialization needs narrowing or down-casting.

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Very frequently asked in companies using SOA.
  Q24. What are RESTful Web Services ?Rest
Admin
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Ans. REST or Representational State Transfer is a flexible architecture style for creating web services that recommends the following guidelines -

1. http for client server communication,
2. XML / JSON as formatiing language ,
3. Simple URI as address for the services and,
4. stateless communication.

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 Q25. What are the contents of Hibernate configuration file ( hibernate.cfg.xml ) ?Hibernate
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Ans. HBM Files ( Mapping )
DB Connection ( DB Connection String , User Name , Password , Pool Size )
SQL Dialect ( SQL variant to be generated )
Show SQL ( Show / No show SQL on Console )
Auto Commit ( True / False )

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates.
 Q26. What is ACID ?Database2016-11-04 08:09:44

Ans. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability is a set of properties of database transactions.

Atomicity means all or nothing. i.e parts of a transaction shouldn't commit if any one of them fails. Either the whole transaction should succeed or it should be complete rollback.

Consistency means that any transaction should lead database from one stabe state to another.

Isolation means that the execution of transaction results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially.

Durability means that when a transaction is committed it forms the permanent state of database.

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 Q27. If an Abstract class has only abstract methods, What's the difference between such a class and an interface ?Core Java2017-05-07 07:26:29

Ans. Such a class still can have member elements which can be inherited and hence facilitate code reuse. Moreover Abstract class can have non final static elements whereas interfaces are only allowed to have static final elements.

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 Q28. What is the use of Transient Keyword ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. It in Java is used to indicate that a field should not be serialized.

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Very Frequently asked.Favorite question in Walk in drive for many Indian service companies.
 Q29. What is a Final Class ?
Anonymous
Ans. A Class that cannot be sub classed.

  Sample Code for final class

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Very Frequently asked. Usually asked along with String Class related questions.
  Q30. What is an immutable class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Class using which only immutable (objects that cannot be changed after initialization) objects can be created.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates.
  Q31. What is a Deadlock ?Operating System
Anonymous
Ans. When two threads are waiting each other and cant precede the program is said to be deadlock.

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 Q32. What is a Static import ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. By static import , we can access the static members of a class directly without prefixing it with the class name.

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Very frequently asked. Usually difference between String,StringBuffer and StringBuilder is asked in different variations.
  Q33. Difference between StringBuffer and StringBuilder ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. StringBuffer is synchronized whereas StringBuilder is not.

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Very frequently asked if being interviewed for hibernate. Frequently asked in Tata Consultancy (TCS) and Overstock.com
  Q34. Difference between load and get ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. If id doesnt exist in the DB load throws an exception whereas get returns null in that case.get makes the call to DB immediately whereas load makes the call to proxy.

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 Q35. What are some different logging levels for log4j ?Log4j
Admin
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Ans. DEBUG
ERROR
ALL
WARN
INFO
FATAL
OFF
TRACE
TRACE_INT
WARN

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  Q36. What is a cookie ?Java EE
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. A cookie is a small piece of text stored on a user's computer by the browser for a specific domain. Commonly used for authentication, storing site preferences, and server session identification.

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Frequently asked at HCL Technologies ( Based on 3 feedback )
  Q37. Difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Checked exceptions are the exceptions for which compiler throws an errors if they are not checked whereas unchecked exceptions are caught during run time only and hence can't be checked.

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Frequently asked.
  Q38. What is an Iterator?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Iterator is an interface that provides methods to iterate over any Collection.

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 Q39. What are transient variables in java?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Transient variables are variable that cannot be serialized.

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  Q40. What is the use of HashCode in objects ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc.

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