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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Technical architect' - 14 question(s) found - Order By Newest

  Q1. Difference between SAX and DOM Parser ?Xml
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Ans. A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document whereas A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure.

A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time whereas A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document whereas DOM parser is rich in functionality.

Use a DOM Parser if you need to refer to different document areas before giving back the information. Use SAX is you just need unrelated nuclear information from different areas.

Xerces, Crimson are SAX Parsers whereas XercesDOM, SunDOM, OracleDOM are DOM parsers.

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 Q2. What are the benefits of using Spring Framework ?Spring
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Ans. Spring enables developers to develop enterprise-class applications using POJOs. The benefit of using only POJOs is that you do not need an EJB container product.

Spring is organized in a modular fashion. Even though the number of packages and classes are substantial, you have to worry only about ones you need and ignore the rest.

Spring does not reinvent the wheel instead, it truly makes use of some of the existing technologies like several ORM frameworks, logging frameworks, JEE, Quartz and JDK timers, other view technologies.

Testing an application written with Spring is simple because environment-dependent code is moved into this framework. Furthermore, by using JavaBean-style POJOs, it becomes easier to use dependency injection for injecting test data.

Spring’s web framework is a well-designed web MVC framework, which provides a great alternative to web frameworks such as Struts or other over engineered or less popular web frameworks.

Spring provides a convenient API to translate technology-specific exceptions (thrown by JDBC, Hibernate, or JDO, for example) into consistent, unchecked exceptions.

Lightweight IoC containers tend to be lightweight, especially when compared to EJB containers, for example. This is beneficial for developing and deploying applications on computers with limited memory and CPU resources.

Spring provides a consistent transaction management interface that can scale down to a local transaction

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Advanced level question. Recently asked in few Indian service companies ( Based on 3 inputs )
 Q3. What are various types of Class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
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Ans. Bootstrap - Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages.

Extensions - Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory - usually lib/ext directory of the JRE

System - Loads classes from system classpath.

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 Q4. What things should be kept in mind while creating your own exceptions in Java?Core Java
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Ans. All exceptions must be a child of Throwable.

If you want to write a checked exception that is automatically enforced by the Handle or Declare Rule, you need to extend the Exception class.

You want to write a runtime exception, you need to extend the RuntimeException class.

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 Q5. Different types of memory used by JVM ?Core Java
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Ans. Class , Heap , Stack , Register , Native Method Stack.

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 Q6. Difference between C++ and Java ?Core Java
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Ans. Java does not support pointers.

Java does not support multiple inheritances.

Java does not support destructors but rather adds a finalize() method. Finalize methods are invoked by the garbage collector prior to reclaiming the memory occupied by the object, which has the finalize() method.

Java does not include structures or unions because the traditional data structures are implemented as an object oriented framework.

C++ compiles to machine language , when Java compiles to byte code .

In C++ the programmer needs to worry about freeing the allocated memory , where in Java the Garbage Collector takes care of the the unneeded / unused variables.

Java is platform independent language but c++ is depends upon operating system.

Java uses compiler and interpreter both and in c++ their is only compiler.

C++ supports operator overloading whereas Java doesn't.

Internet support is built-in Java but not in C++. However c++ has support for socket programming which can be used.

Java does not support header file, include library files just like C++ .Java use import to include different Classes and methods.

There is no goto statement in Java.

There is no scope resolution operator :: in Java. It has . using which we can qualify classes with the namespace they came from.

Java is pass by value whereas C++ is both pass by value and pass by reference.

Java Enums are objects instead of int values in C++

C++ programs runs as native executable machine code for the target and hence more near to hardware whereas Java program runs in a virtual machine.

C++ was designed mainly for systems programming, extending the C programming language whereas Java was created initially to support network computing.

C++ allows low-level addressing of data. You can manipulate machine addresses to look at anything you want. Java access is controlled.

C++ has several addressing operators . * & -> where Java has only one: the .

We can create our own package in Java(set of classes) but not in c and c++.

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 Q7. How substring() method of String class create memory leaks?Core Java
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Ans. substring method would build a new String object keeping a reference to the whole char array, to avoid copying it. Hence you can inadvertently keep a reference to a very big character array with just a one character string.

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   Like      Discuss      Correct / Improve     java   string class   string   substring   memory leaks   jvm   memory management   advanced   architecture   technical architect   technical lead      expert


 Q8. What are LDAP servers used for ?Java EE
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Ans. LDAP servers are typically used in J2EE applications to authenticate and authorise users. LDAP servers are hierarchical and are optimized for read access, so likely to be faster than database in providing read access.

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   Like      Discuss      Correct / Improve     java   j2ee   ldap   servers   authentication   authorization   architecture   technical lead   technical architect


 Q9. What is the best practice configuration usage for files - pom.xml or settings.xml ?Maven
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Ans. The best practice guideline between settings.xml and pom.xml is that configurations in settings.xml must be specific to the current user and that pom.xml configurations are specific to the project.

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   Like      Discuss      Correct / Improve     maven   build technologies   pom.xml   settings.xml   architecture   technical architect   technical lead   build management   build and release

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 Q10. Why Web services use HTTP as the communication protocol ?Web Service
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Ans. With the advent of Internet, HTTP is the most preferred way of communication. Most of the clients ( web thin client , web thick clients , mobile apps ) are designed to communicate using http only. Web Services using http makes them accessible from vast variety of client applications.

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   Like      Discuss      Correct / Improve     rest   webservices   web servuces   http   architecture   technical architect


Frequently asked these days as there are major changes in Java 8.
  Q11. What are new features introduced with Java 8 ?Core Java
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Ans. Lambda Expressions , Interface Default and Static Methods , Method Reference , Parameters Name , Optional , Streams, Concurrency.

  Sample Code for Lambda

  Sample Code for interface default

  Sample Code for Optional

  Sample Code for Streams

  Sample Code for java.time

  Sample Code for Predicate

  Sample Code for Consumer

  Sample Code for MapMerge

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 Q12. Which UML diagrams you usually use for design ?Design
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Ans. Use Case Diagram, Component Diagram for High level Design and Class Diagram , Sequence Diagram for low level design.

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 Q13. How do you coordinate and communicate with the team developers ?Process
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Ans. We as a team of developers , testers , analyst , lead and architect sit close to each other. Most of the time I would just jump to their seat and talk to them ( if required ). We have daily stand up where we discuss things that needs team attention.

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 Q14. What kind of software architecture your organization follow ?Design
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Ans. We have multi tier architecture with multiple layers , We have series of web servers and applications in application tier, infrastructure libraries at middle tier and Database servers at the lower tier. We are using Oracle as Database, ESB ( Enterprise service Bus ) for asynchronous communication and Rest Web Services.

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