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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Technical lead' - 25 question(s) found - Order By Newest

 Q1. Why do we need Inner classes ? Cant we just work with outer classes wherever we implement Inner classes ?Core Java
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Ans. Yes, we can substitute outer classes wherever we need to have inner classes but Inner classes have advantage in certain cases and hence preferred -

Ease - Why to implement a class outside if its objects are only intended to be part of an outer object. Its easy to define the class within another class if the use is only local.

Protection - Making a call an outer exposes a threat of it being used by any of the class. Why should it be made an outer class if its object should only occur as part of other objects.

For example - You may like to have an class address whose object should have a reference to city and by design thats the only use of city you have in your application. Making Address and City as outer class exposes City to any of the Class. Making it an inner class of Address will make sure that its accessed using object of Address.

  Sample Code for inner class

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  Q2. Difference between SAX and DOM Parser ?Xml
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Ans. A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document whereas A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure.

A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time whereas A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document whereas DOM parser is rich in functionality.

Use a DOM Parser if you need to refer to different document areas before giving back the information. Use SAX is you just need unrelated nuclear information from different areas.

Xerces, Crimson are SAX Parsers whereas XercesDOM, SunDOM, OracleDOM are DOM parsers.

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 Q3. What are the benefits of using Spring Framework ?Spring
Admin
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Ans. Spring enables developers to develop enterprise-class applications using POJOs. The benefit of using only POJOs is that you do not need an EJB container product.

Spring is organized in a modular fashion. Even though the number of packages and classes are substantial, you have to worry only about ones you need and ignore the rest.

Spring does not reinvent the wheel instead, it truly makes use of some of the existing technologies like several ORM frameworks, logging frameworks, JEE, Quartz and JDK timers, other view technologies.

Testing an application written with Spring is simple because environment-dependent code is moved into this framework. Furthermore, by using JavaBean-style POJOs, it becomes easier to use dependency injection for injecting test data.

Spring’s web framework is a well-designed web MVC framework, which provides a great alternative to web frameworks such as Struts or other over engineered or less popular web frameworks.

Spring provides a convenient API to translate technology-specific exceptions (thrown by JDBC, Hibernate, or JDO, for example) into consistent, unchecked exceptions.

Lightweight IoC containers tend to be lightweight, especially when compared to EJB containers, for example. This is beneficial for developing and deploying applications on computers with limited memory and CPU resources.

Spring provides a consistent transaction management interface that can scale down to a local transaction

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Advanced level question. Recently asked in few Indian service companies ( Based on 3 inputs )
 Q4. What are various types of Class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Bootstrap - Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages.

Extensions - Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory - usually lib/ext directory of the JRE

System - Loads classes from system classpath.

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 Q5. What things should be kept in mind while creating your own exceptions in Java?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. All exceptions must be a child of Throwable.

If you want to write a checked exception that is automatically enforced by the Handle or Declare Rule, you need to extend the Exception class.

You want to write a runtime exception, you need to extend the RuntimeException class.

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Frequently asked question in companies using hibernate.
  Q6. Difference between first level and second level cache in hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. 1. First level cache is enabled by default whereas Second level cache needs to be enabled explicitly.

2. First level Cache came with Hibernate 1.0 whereas Second level cache came with Hibernate 3.0.

3. First level Cache is Session specific whereas Second level cache is shared by sessions that is why First level cache is considered local and second level cache is considered global.

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 Q7. If you are given a choice to implement the code to either Insert a Record or Update if already exist, Which approach will you follow ?

1. Insert into the DB Table. If exception occurs, update the existing record.
2. Check if the record exists and update it if it exists, If not insert a new record.
Solution
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. In first case, there would be 2 DB calls in worst case and 1 in best case. In 2nd approach there will be always 2 DB calls.

Decision on the approach should depend on the following considerations -

1. How costly is the call to DB ? Are we using indices , hibernate etc

If calls to DB are costly , 1st approach should be the choice.

2. Exception Book keeping load upon exception.

The benefit of saving 1st call in approach 1 should be bigger than the Book keeping for the exception.

3. Probability of the exception in first apparoach.

If the DB Table is almost empty, it makes sense to follow Approach 1 as majority of the 1st calls will pass through without exception.

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 Q8. What is a transitive dependency ? Can we override Transitive Dependency version and If Yes, how ?Maven
Admin
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Ans. Transitive dependency is the dependencies not defined directly in the current POM but the POM of the dependent projects.

Yes we can override transitive dependency version by specifying the dependency in the current POM.

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 Q9. How to implement an immutable class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. We can make a class immutable by

1. Making all methods and variables as private.

2. Setting variables within constructor.

Public Class ImmutableClass{

private int member;
ImmutableClass(int var){
member=var;
}
}

and then we can initialize the object of the class as

ImmutableClass immutableObject = new ImmutableClass(5);

Now all members being private , you cant change the state of the object.

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 Q10. Difference between Factory and Abstract Factory Design Pattern ?Design
Anonymous
Ans. Factory Pattern deals with creation of objects delegated to a separate factory class whereas Abstract Factory patterns works around a super-factory which creates other factories.

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 Q11. Difference between C++ and Java ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Java does not support pointers.

Java does not support multiple inheritances.

Java does not support destructors but rather adds a finalize() method. Finalize methods are invoked by the garbage collector prior to reclaiming the memory occupied by the object, which has the finalize() method.

Java does not include structures or unions because the traditional data structures are implemented as an object oriented framework.

C++ compiles to machine language , when Java compiles to byte code .

In C++ the programmer needs to worry about freeing the allocated memory , where in Java the Garbage Collector takes care of the the unneeded / unused variables.

Java is platform independent language but c++ is depends upon operating system.

Java uses compiler and interpreter both and in c++ their is only compiler.

C++ supports operator overloading whereas Java doesn't.

Internet support is built-in Java but not in C++. However c++ has support for socket programming which can be used.

Java does not support header file, include library files just like C++ .Java use import to include different Classes and methods.

There is no goto statement in Java.

There is no scope resolution operator :: in Java. It has . using which we can qualify classes with the namespace they came from.

Java is pass by value whereas C++ is both pass by value and pass by reference.

Java Enums are objects instead of int values in C++

C++ programs runs as native executable machine code for the target and hence more near to hardware whereas Java program runs in a virtual machine.

C++ was designed mainly for systems programming, extending the C programming language whereas Java was created initially to support network computing.

C++ allows low-level addressing of data. You can manipulate machine addresses to look at anything you want. Java access is controlled.

C++ has several addressing operators . * & -> where Java has only one: the .

We can create our own package in Java(set of classes) but not in c and c++.

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 Q12. How substring() method of String class create memory leaks?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. substring method would build a new String object keeping a reference to the whole char array, to avoid copying it. Hence you can inadvertently keep a reference to a very big character array with just a one character string.

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 Q13. What things you would care about to improve the performance of Application if its identified that its DB communication that needs to be improved ?Solution
Admin
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Ans. 1. Query Optimization ( Query Rewriting , Prepared Statements )

2. Restructuring Indexes.

3. DB Caching Tuning ( if using ORM )

4. Identifying the problems ( if any ) with the ORM Strategy ( If using ORM )

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 Q14. If I try to add Enum constants to a TreeSet, What sorting order will it use ?
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Ans. Tree Set will sort the Values in the order in which Enum constants are declared.

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 Q15. Name few tools for probing Java Memory Leaks ?
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Ans. JProbe, OptimizeIt

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 Q16. What are LDAP servers used for ?Java EE
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Ans. LDAP servers are typically used in J2EE applications to authenticate and authorise users. LDAP servers are hierarchical and are optimized for read access, so likely to be faster than database in providing read access.

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 Q17. What is the best practice configuration usage for files - pom.xml or settings.xml ?Maven
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Ans. The best practice guideline between settings.xml and pom.xml is that configurations in settings.xml must be specific to the current user and that pom.xml configurations are specific to the project.

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 Q18. What are different types of second level cache ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. 1. EHCache ( Easy Hibernate )
2. OSCache ( Open Symphony )
3. Swarm Cache ( JBoss )
4. Tree Cache ( JBoss )

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Frequently asked these days as there are major changes in Java 8.
  Q19. What are new features introduced with Java 8 ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Lambda Expressions , Interface Default and Static Methods , Method Reference , Parameters Name , Optional , Streams, Concurrency.

  Sample Code for Lambda

  Sample Code for interface default

  Sample Code for Optional

  Sample Code for Streams

  Sample Code for java.time

  Sample Code for Predicate

  Sample Code for Consumer

  Sample Code for MapMerge

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 Q20. Which version control (VC) or software configuration management (SCM) systems work with Merge?Scm
vinay
vinay.putta458@gmail.com
Ans. You can use Tortoise SVN,which has Merge Utility embedded in it.

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 Q21. What things you will look for if you get following exception while making DB call ?

table or view does not exist
Database
Admin
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Ans. First will check if the table or view actually exist in the DB

If it does , Will make sure to see that the application has rights on the schema that holds the respective Table.

Will then make sure that we have prefixed the schema with the table name while accessing it.

Will then make sure that its not DB Cache that's causing it as the table DDL might have been created recently.

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 Q22. Which UML diagrams you usually use for design ?Design
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Ans. Use Case Diagram, Component Diagram for High level Design and Class Diagram , Sequence Diagram for low level design.

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 Q23. How do you coordinate and communicate with the team developers ?Process
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Ans. We as a team of developers , testers , analyst , lead and architect sit close to each other. Most of the time I would just jump to their seat and talk to them ( if required ). We have daily stand up where we discuss things that needs team attention.

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 Q24. What kind of software architecture your organization follow ?Design
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Ans. We have multi tier architecture with multiple layers , We have series of web servers and applications in application tier, infrastructure libraries at middle tier and Database servers at the lower tier. We are using Oracle as Database, ESB ( Enterprise service Bus ) for asynchronous communication and Rest Web Services.

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 Q25. Which web application framework you like and Why ?Framework
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Ans. I like Spring as it comes with inbuilt Dependency Injection framework. It has great online community and support and is proven to work well with ORMs like Hibernate. If we are not working with ORM and DI, Struts 2 is also good.

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