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Frequently asked Java Interview Questions and Answers - 268 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q3. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers. Among the first few questions in many interviews.
  Q4. What are the difference between composition and inheritance in Java?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Composition - has-a relationship between objects.
Inheritance - is-a relationship between classes.

Composition - Composing object holds a reference to composed objects and hence relationship is loosely bound.
Inheritance - Derived object carries the base class definition in itself and hence its tightly bound.

Composition - Used in Dependency Injection
Inheritance - Used in Runtime Polymorphism

Composition - Single class objects can be composed within multiple classes.
Inheritance - Single class can only inherit 1 Class.

Composition - Its the relationship between objects.
Inheritance - Its the relationship between classes.

  Sample Code for inheritance

  Sample Code for composition

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  Q5. Which are the different segments of memory ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Stack Segment - Contains primitives, Class / Interface names and references.

2. Heap Segment - Contains all created objects in runtime, objects only plus their object attributes (instance variables), Static variables are also stored in heap.

3. Code Segment - The segment where the actual compiled Java bytecodes resides when loaded

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 Q6. What do you mean by "Java is a statically typed language" ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. It means that the type of variables are checked at compile time in Java.The main advantage here is that all kinds of checking can be done by the compiler and hence will reduce bugs.

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 Q7. What is the difference between declaration, instantiation and initialization ?Core Java2016-05-26 14:17:48

Ans. Declaration is intimation to the compiler about the nature of Data a reference is going to hold.

For example - List myList;

Instantiation is reservation of memory.

For example

myList = new ArrayList();

Initialization or construction is setting the default values for member elements.

For example

myList = new ArrayList(mySet);

** Example 2nd is both for instantiation as well as initialization. The only difference is that 2nd will initialized the member elements to their default values whereas 3rd will initialized it with the elements from set.


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 Q8. What are different ways to create String Object? Explain.Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. When we create a String using double quotes, JVM looks in the String pool to find if any other String is stored with same value. If found, it just returns the reference to that String object else it creates a new String object with given value and stores it in the String pool.

When we use new operator, JVM creates the String object but dont store it into the String Pool. We can use intern() method to store the String object into String pool or return the reference if there is already a String with equal value present in the pool.

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 Q9. What are the benefits of JSON over XML ?Json
Anonymous
Ans. Lighter and faster than XML as on-the-wire data format

Object Representation - Information is presented in object notations and hence better understandable.

Easy to parse and conversion to objects for information consumption.

Support multiple data types - JSON supports string, number, array, boolean whereas XML data are all string.

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Frequently asked.
 Q10. If you are given a choice to use either ArrayList and LinkedList, Which one would you use and Why ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. ArrayList are implemented in memory as arrays and hence allows fast retrieval through indices but are costly if new elements are to be inserted in between other elements. LinkedList allows for constant-time insertions or removals using iterators, but only sequential access of elements

1. Retrieval - If Elements are to be retrieved sequentially only, Linked List is preferred.

2. Insertion - If new Elements are to be inserted in between other elements , Linked List is preferred.

3. Search - Binary Search and other optimized way of searching is not possible on Linked List.

4. Sorting - Initial sorting could be pain but lateral addition of elements in a sorted list is good with linked list.

5. Adding Elements - If sufficiently large elements needs to be added very frequently ,Linked List is preferable as elements don't need consecutive memory location.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Frequently asked question in companies using Hibernate.
  Q11. What is Lazy Initialization in Hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. It's a feature to lazily initialize dependencies , relationship and associations from the Database. Any related references marked as @OneToMany or @ManyToMany are loaded lazily i.e when they are accessed and not when the parent is loaded.

  Sample Code for Lazy Initialization

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  Q12. What is a Lambda Expression ? What's its use ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Its an anonymous method without any declaration.

Lambda Expression are useful to write shorthand Code and hence saves the effort of writing lengthy Code.

It promotes Developer productivity, Better Readable and Reliable code.

  Sample Code for lambda

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 Q13. How can we run a java program without making any object?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. By putting code within static method. With Java 6 and earlier versions, even static block can be used.

  Sample Code for static block

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q14. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies.
  Q15. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q16. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q17. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very frequently asked across all types of companies.
  Q18. Difference between HashMap and Hashtable?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashtable is synchronized whereas HashMap is not.HashMap allows null values whereas Hashtable doesnt allow null values.

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Recently asked in Accenture and Fidelity.
 Q19. Explain Flow of Spring MVC ?Spring
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. The DispatcherServlet configured in web.xml file receives the request.

The DispatcherServlet finds the appropriate Controller with the help of HandlerMapping and then invokes associated Controller.

Then the Controller executes the logic business logic and then returns ModeAndView object to the DispatcherServlet.

The DispatcherServlet determines the view from the ModelAndView object.

Then the DispatcherServlet passes the model object to the View.

The View is rendered and the Dispatcher Servlet sends the output to the Servlet container.

Finally Servlet Container sends the result back to the user.

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Advanced level question frequently asked in US based companies. Recently asked in EMC and Intuit.
  Q20. Can you provide some implementation of a Dictionary having large number of words ? Solution
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Simplest implementation we can have is a List wherein we can place ordered words and hence can perform Binary Search.

Other implementation with better search performance is to use HashMap with key as first character of the word and value as a LinkedList.

Further level up, we can have linked Hashmaps like ,

hashmap {
a ( key ) -> hashmap (key-aa , value (hashmap(key-aaa,value)
b ( key ) -> hashmap (key-ba , value (hashmap(key-baa,value)
....................................................................................
z( key ) -> hashmap (key-za , value (hashmap(key-zaa,value)
}

upto n levels ( where n is the average size of the word in dictionary.

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Frequently asked question in companies using hibernate.
  Q21. Difference between first level and second level cache in hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. 1. First level cache is enabled by default whereas Second level cache needs to be enabled explicitly.

2. First level Cache came with Hibernate 1.0 whereas Second level cache came with Hibernate 3.0.

3. First level Cache is Session specific whereas Second level cache is shared by sessions that is why First level cache is considered local and second level cache is considered global.

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Frequently asked in Cognizant ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q22. What are Inner , Outer , Left and Right Joins in SQL ?Database2017-01-09 13:07:55

Ans. Inner join is the intersection of two tables on the condition defined by the where clause i.e will get records from both tables matched by a column.

Outer join is the union of two tables i.e will get all records from both tables and will put null in the columns where related records are not present.

Left Outer join is the left union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the left and values from the right table for related records else null for the columns from right table.

Right Outer join is the right union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the right and values from the left table for related records else null for the columns from left table.

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  Q23. Explain OOPs Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protected
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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 Q24. What will this code print ?

String a = new String ("TEST");
String b = new String ("TEST");
if(a == b) {
System.out.println ("TRUE");
} else {
System.out.println ("FALSE");
}
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. FALSE. == operator compares object references, a and b are references to two different objects, hence the FALSE. .equals method is used to compare string object content.

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Frequently asked in all types of companies especially Indian Services companies. Frequently asked in CTS (Based on 2 feedback)
 Q25. What is the use of hashcode in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc. The value received from hashcode() is used as bucket number for storing elements. This bucket number is the address of the element inside the set/map. when you do contains() then it will take the hashcode of the element, then look for the bucket where hashcode points to and if more than 1 element is found in the same bucket (multiple objects can have the same hashcode) then it uses the equals() method to evaluate if object are equal, and then decide if contain() is true or false, or decide if element could be added in the set or not.

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Frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q26. What are the methods of Object Class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. clone() - Creates and returns a copy of this object.

equals() - Indicates whether some other object is "equal to" this one.

finalize() - Called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

getClass() - Returns the runtime class of an object.

hashCode() - Returns a hash code value for the object.

toString() - Returns a string representation of the object.

notify(), notifyAll(), and wait() - Play a part in synchronizing the activities of independently running threads in a program.

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 Q27. Difference between Static and Singleton Class ?Core Java2016-11-30 21:00:43

Ans. 1. Static class is a class which cannot be instantiated and all its members are static whereas Singleton is the class that only permit creation of single object and then the object is reused.

2. As there is no object in Static class, it cannot participate in runtime Polymorphism.

3. As Static class doesnt allow creating objects and hence it cannot be serialized.

4. Static class body is initialized eagerly at application load time whereas Singleton object can be initiated eagerly using static blocks or lazily on first need.

5. Its not recommended to use pure static class as it fails to use many OOPs concepts.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q28. Why do we write public static void main ? Can we use some other syntax too for main ?Core Java
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Ans.
1. public is the access modifier that makes the method accessible from anywhere, static is the keyword that makes it accessible even without creating any object and using class name only , void means it doesnt return anything , String args[] is the array of argument that this method receives.

2. If I use Main , it will compile correctly as Java will treat it as just another method but it wont be the method "main" which Java looks for when it looks to execute the class and hence will throw

Error: Main method not found in class , please define the main method as:
public static void main(String[] args)

3. Main is not a keyword but a special string that Java looks for while initiating the main thread.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers.
 Q29. Explain multithreading in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Multithreading provides better interaction with the user by distribution of task

2. Threads in Java appear to run concurrently, so it provides simulation for simultaneous activities.The processor runs each thread for a short time and switches among the threads to simulate sim-ultaneous execution (context-switching) and it make appears that each thread has its own processor.By using this feature, users can make it appear as if multiple tasks are occurring simultaneously when, in fact, each is running for only a brief time before the context is switched to the next thread.

3. We can do other things while waiting for slow I/O operations.In the java.iopackage, the class InputStreamhas a method, read(), that blocks until a byte is read from the stream or until an IOExceptionis thrown. The thread that executes this method cannot do anything elsewhile awaiting the arrival of another byte on the stream.

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Advanced level question usually asked in High end product companies. Have been asked in Google and Amazon (Based on 1 Feedback)
  Q30. Describe, in general, how java's garbage collector works ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. The Java runtime environment deletes objects when it determines that they are no longer being used. This process is known as garbage collection. The Java runtime environment supports a garbage collector that periodically frees the memory used by objects that are no longer needed. The Java garbage collector is a mark-sweep garbage collector that scans Java dynamic memory areas for objects, marking those that are referenced. After all possible paths to objects are investigated, those objects that are not marked (i.e. are not referenced) are known to be garbage and are collected.

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  Q31. Difference between SAX and DOM Parser ?Xml
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Ans. A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document whereas A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure.

A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time whereas A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document whereas DOM parser is rich in functionality.

Use a DOM Parser if you need to refer to different document areas before giving back the information. Use SAX is you just need unrelated nuclear information from different areas.

Xerces, Crimson are SAX Parsers whereas XercesDOM, SunDOM, OracleDOM are DOM parsers.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q32. Difference between Composition and Inheritance ?Core Java
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Ans. Inheritance means a object inheriting reusable properties of the base class. Compositions means that an abject holds other objects.

In Inheritance there is only one object in memory ( derived object ) whereas in Composition , parent object holds references of all composed objects.

From Design perspective - Inheritance is "is a" relationship among objects whereas Composition is "has a" relationship among objects.

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Frequently asked to experienced developers. Recently asked in many US interviews.
 Q33. What is database deadlock ? How can we avoid them?Database
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Ans. When multiple external resources are trying to access the DB locks and runs into cyclic wait, it may makes the DB unresponsive.

Deadlock can be avoided using variety of measures, Few listed below -

Can make a queue wherein we can verify and order the request to DB.

Less use of cursors as they lock the tables for long time.

Keeping the transaction smaller.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 2 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q34. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q35. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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Frequently asked. Among first few questions in the J2EE segment of interview.
  Q36. What is the use of deployment descriptor ?Java EE2016-06-04 22:46:40

Ans. Deployment Descriptor which is usually web.xml is used to specify the classes, resources and configuration of the application and how the web server uses them to serve web requests.This file is usually added to WEB-INF folder and contains following

* Servlet entries and url mapping
* Plugins
* Some info regarding authentication / filters
* Landing Page
* Event Handlers

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q37. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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 Q38. Which elements of a class are ignored during serialization ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:08:21

Ans. 1. Objects are serialized and not classes and hence Static variables are ignored.

2. Transient is an explicit declaration to ignore the variable during serialization and hence transient instance variables are ignored too.

3. Base class instance variables if the base class hasn't been declared serializable.

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Usually asked in relation to casting and ClassCastException.
 Q39. What is instanceOf operator ? Explain it's use ?Core Java2017-06-12 07:58:22

Ans. The operator instanceOf is used to verify if the specified object is the instance of specified class or interface.

Syntax if(x instanceOf ABC)

where x is an object reference and ABC could be a class name or interface name. The above statement will be true if x holds an object that is an instance of ABC or any of the child class of ABC or if x holds an object that implements ABC.

instanceOf operator is used to verify in case of downcasting. For ex -

DerivedClass extends BaseClass

x is the reference of BaseClass but holds DerivedClass object ( Polymorphism )

There is an operation that is defined in Derived Class, let's say derivedClassMethod()

We cannot call derivedClassMethod() directly using x as x is reference of BaseClass and not DerivedClass and hence can only access methods that are defined in BaseClass and overridden in derived class.

Though we can cast it to DerivedClass as following
((DerivedClass)x).derivedClassMethod();

But it may throw ClassCastException in case x doesn't hold an instance of DerivedClass at that point.

So before casting it to DerivedClass we may like to make sure that it is an instance of DerivedClass and hence won't throw ClassCastException.

So we make a check for it

if(x instanceOf DerivedClass) {
((DerivedClass)x).derivedClassMethod();
}

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 Q40. What is the difference between Graph's Breadth first and Depth First algorithm ?Algorithm2017-07-23 10:12:58

Ans. In Breadth first algorithm, all the adjacent nodes of the starting node is visited first and then the same rule is followed while moving inwards whereas

In Depth first algorithm, all the nodes of a single traversal path are visited first till a cycle or an end is found.

For example , given the following entries of adjacent nodes

1,2
1,3
1,6
2,4
2,5
3,6

The Breadth first path would be

1,2,3,6,4,5

and Depth first path would be

1,2,4,5,3,6

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