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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q31. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java
Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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 Q32. What are the benefits of Enums ?Core Java
Ans. Enums in Java are used to declare predefined objects and then reuse them. they offer many benefits

1. Enum instance are type safe and thread safe.

2. Enum instances are singleton and hence reused.

3. If we use Enums with Switch , It makes sure that the passed argument is either of its instance and hence provides a safeguard.

4. If we use Enum with Sorted Collections we can sort the elements with a predefined priorities ( as per constant declaration in enum )

5. We can use Enum as a Factory by defining its constructor.

6. We can store related constant data within enum. For example - If we know the values for the map upfront, we can alternatively use an enum.

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  Q33. What is a self Join and give an example of a self Join ?

or

What is self Join and What is it's purpose ?
Database
Ans. When a Table Join itself , it's a Self Join. For example - we like to know the pair of department names where first dept has lesser employees than the later.

Select D1.name , D2.name from Dept D1, Dept D2 where D1.employee_count < D2.employee_count

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  Q34. What is a cookie ?Java EE
Ans. A cookie is a small piece of text stored on a user's computer by the browser for a specific domain. Commonly used for authentication, storing site preferences, and server session identification.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q35. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q36. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Frequently asked at HCL Technologies ( Based on 3 feedback )
  Q37. Difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions ?Core Java
Ans. Checked exceptions are the exceptions for which compiler throws an errors if they are not checked whereas unchecked exceptions are caught during run time only and hence can't be checked.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q38. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q39. What is a final method ?Core Java
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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Frequently asked.
  Q40. What is an Iterator?Core Java
Ans. Iterator is an interface that provides methods to iterate over any Collection.

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Very frequently asked across all types of companies.
  Q41. Difference between HashMap and Hashtable?Core Java
Ans. Hashtable is synchronized whereas HashMap is not.HashMap allows null values whereas Hashtable doesnt allow null values.

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 Q42. What are transient variables in java?Core Java
Ans. Transient variables are variable that cannot be serialized.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   serialization   transient     Asked in 15 Companies      intermediate        rare


  Q43. What is casting?Core Java
Ans. There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric types and casting between object references. Casting between numeric types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller values, such as byte values. Casting between object references is used to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or array type reference

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   data types   casting  type casting   basic interview question     Asked in 8 Companies      basic        frequent


Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q44. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q45. Difference between Vector and ArrayList ?Core Java
Ans. Vectors are synchronized whereas Array lists are not.

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  Q46. What is the use of Transient Keyword ?Core Java
Ans. It in Java is used to indicate that a field should not be serialized.

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Very Frequently asked. Usually asked along with String Class related questions.
  Q47. What is an immutable class ?Core Java
Ans. Class using which only immutable (objects that cannot be changed after initialization) objects can be created.

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Very frequently asked in phone and walk in interviews.
  Q48. What are Marker Interfaces ? Name few Java marker interfaces ?Core Java
Ans. An interface without any method declaration is called as marker interface. there are 3 in-built interfaces in JVM i.e. serializable, clonable, remote

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Very frequently asked. Usually difference between String,StringBuffer and StringBuilder is asked in different variations.
  Q49. Difference between StringBuffer and StringBuilder ?Core Java
Ans. StringBuffer is synchronized whereas StringBuilder is not.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q50. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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 Q51. Is it necessary that each try block to be followed by catch block ? Core Java
Ans. It should be followed by either catch or finally block.

  Sample Code for Retry in case of exception

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  Q52. What is reflection ?
Ans. It is the process of examining / modifying the behaviour of an object at runtime.

  Sample Code for reflection

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Advanced level question. Recently asked in few Indian service companies ( Based on 3 inputs )
 Q53. What are various types of Class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
Ans. Bootstrap - Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages.

Extensions - Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory - usually lib/ext directory of the JRE

System - Loads classes from system classpath.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q54. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Frequently asked in CTS ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q55. What is the difference between comparable and comparator in java.util pkg?Core Java
Ans. Comparable interface is used for single sequence sorting i.e.sorting the objects based on single data member where as comparator interface is used to sort the object based on multiple data members.

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Recently asked in TCS , Tech Mahindra, HCL , Accenture and Fidelity.
  Q56. Explain Flow of Spring MVC ?Spring
Ans. The DispatcherServlet configured in web.xml file receives the request.

The DispatcherServlet finds the appropriate Controller with the help of HandlerMapping and then invokes associated Controller.

Then the Controller executes the logic business logic and then returns ModeAndView object to the DispatcherServlet.

The DispatcherServlet determines the view from the ModelAndView object.

Then the DispatcherServlet passes the model object to the View.

The View is rendered and the Dispatcher Servlet sends the output to the Servlet container.

Finally Servlet Container sends the result back to the user.

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Very frequently asked.Usually among first few questions.
  Q57. What is MVC ? Design
Ans. MVC is a Design Pattern that facilititates loose coupling by segregating responsibilities in a Web application

1. Controller receives the requests and handles overall control of the request
2. Model holds majority of the Business logic, and
3. View comprise of the view objects and GUI component

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  Q58. Advantage of Collection classes over Arrays ?Core Java
Ans. Collections are re-sizable in nature. We can increase or decrease the size as per recruitment.
Collections can hold both homogeneous and heterogeneous data's.
Every collection follows some standard data structures.
Collection provides many useful built in methods for traversing,sorting and search.

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  Q59. What is the use of HashCode in objects ?Core Java
Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc.

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  Q60. What do you mean by "Java is a statically typed language" ?Core Java
Ans. It means that the type of variables are checked at compile time in Java.The main advantage here is that all kinds of checking can be done by the compiler and hence will reduce bugs.

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