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Java - Interview Questions and Answers - Order By Newest

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 Q41. What are the advantages and disadvantages of static variables and static methods ?Core Java
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Ans. Advantages

Can do meta object operations ( like validating something before creating objects , keep count of number of objects )

Can do operations which have nothing to do with objects but still you want them to be tied to Class.

Disadvantages

Commonly used to static variables sometime leads to problems due to access by different objects.

Are not tied to objects so doesn't reflect pure Object Oriented approach.

Needs to be synchronized so as to avoid update conflicts by mutiple objects and threads.

Some limitation in testing as not all frameworks have facility to mock them. Powermock has but Mockito doesnt

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q42. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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 Q43. Which keyword is used to provide explicit access of a code block to single thread ?

a. Transient
b. Final
c. Explicit
d. Synchronized
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Synchronized

  Sample Code for Synchronized

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 Q44. Can you give a real world example of Encapsulation and Abstraction ?Core Java2016-05-29 13:47:31

Ans. Car Engine is an example of encapsulation and abstraction. You ignite the car using an interface called starter and least bothered about how the tire actually moves (This is abstraction). The engine encapsulates the complete process to itself only and doesn't allow you to start the other components like the radiator etc ( this is excapsulation )

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 Q45. Can we declare static variables as transient ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:12:48

Ans. It's weird that compiler doesn't complain if we declare transient with static variable because it makes no sense. At least a warning message saying "transient is useless in this situation" would have helped with code cleaning.

Static variables are never serialized and transient is an indication that the specified variable shouldn't be serialized so its kind of double enforcement not to serialize.

It could be that as it makes no different to the variable behavior and hence using both keywords with a variable are permitted.

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 Q46. How is string object immutable if we can concat a string to it ?Core Java2017-08-08 09:50:28

Ans. Because it doesn't make the change in the existing string but would create a new string by concatenating the new string to previous string. So Original string won't get changed but a new string will be created. That is why when we say

str1.concat("Hello");

It means nothing because we haven't specified the reference to the new string and we have no way to access the new concatenated string. Accessing str1 with the above code will still give the original string.

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 Q47. Difference between JVM, JRE and JDK ?Core Java2017-10-31 08:36:22

Ans. JDK(Java Development kit) = Development Kit comprising of JVM , library and development tools for developers

JRE (Java Run time Environment) - Comprise of JVM and set of libraries

JVM(Java Virtual Machine) = Interpreter which reads the .class file line by line.

When we install JDK, JRE also get installed so we can write,compile and excute our code. Used by developer. Without JDK we can only execute the program using JRE.

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q48. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q49. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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 Q50. What will this code print ?

String a = new String ("TEST");
String b = new String ("TEST");
if(a == b) {
System.out.println ("TRUE");
} else {
System.out.println ("FALSE");
}
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. FALSE. == operator compares object references, a and b are references to two different objects, hence the FALSE. .equals method is used to compare string object content.

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  Q51. What is casting?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric types and casting between object references. Casting between numeric types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller values, such as byte values. Casting between object references is used to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or array type reference

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Advanced level question usually asked in High end product companies. Have been asked in Google and Amazon (Based on 1 Feedback)
  Q52. Describe, in general, how java's garbage collector works ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. The Java runtime environment deletes objects when it determines that they are no longer being used. This process is known as garbage collection. The Java runtime environment supports a garbage collector that periodically frees the memory used by objects that are no longer needed. The Java garbage collector is a mark-sweep garbage collector that scans Java dynamic memory areas for objects, marking those that are referenced. After all possible paths to objects are investigated, those objects that are not marked (i.e. are not referenced) are known to be garbage and are collected.

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q53. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q54. What is Serialization ? Why do we need it ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Storing the state of an object in a file or other medium is called serialization.

Classes can communicate only if they are built together ( as they need Byte code for communication ). What if we need to enable communication between different applications ( i.e they have been built independently or even they reside at different locations ), We need a mechanism that will transfer the Bean state to a Medium than can be transferred to the receiving application.

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 Q55. What are the benefits of using Spring Framework ?Spring
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Ans. Spring enables developers to develop enterprise-class applications using POJOs. The benefit of using only POJOs is that you do not need an EJB container product.

Spring is organized in a modular fashion. Even though the number of packages and classes are substantial, you have to worry only about ones you need and ignore the rest.

Spring does not reinvent the wheel instead, it truly makes use of some of the existing technologies like several ORM frameworks, logging frameworks, JEE, Quartz and JDK timers, other view technologies.

Testing an application written with Spring is simple because environment-dependent code is moved into this framework. Furthermore, by using JavaBean-style POJOs, it becomes easier to use dependency injection for injecting test data.

Spring is web framework is a well-designed web MVC framework, which provides a great alternative to web frameworks such as Struts or other over engineered or less popular web frameworks.

Spring provides a convenient API to translate technology-specific exceptions (thrown by JDBC, Hibernate, or JDO, for example) into consistent, unchecked exceptions.

Lightweight IoC containers tend to be lightweight, especially when compared to EJB containers, for example. This is beneficial for developing and deploying applications on computers with limited memory and CPU resources.

Spring provides a consistent transaction management interface that can scale down to a local transaction

  Sample Code for spring

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 Q56. What things should be kept in mind while creating your own exceptions in Java?Core Java
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Ans. All exceptions must be a child of Throwable.

If you want to write a checked exception that is automatically enforced by the Handle or Declare Rule, you need to extend the Exception class.

You want to write a runtime exception, you need to extend the RuntimeException class.

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 Q57. What is the difference between the following two code lines ?

1. new OuterClass().new InnerClass();

2. new OuterClass.InnerClass();
Core Java2016-06-30 14:45:37

Ans. In first case we are trying to initialize Inner class object using the instance of Outer Class whereas in second case we are trying to initialize the Inner class object directly using the Outer class name.

In second case , Inner class is "static inner class" as we cannot access "non static inner class" using Classname alone.

In first case, the inner class could be either "static inner class" or "non static inner class".

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 Q58. What are the different uses of Interfaces in Java ?Core Java2016-07-20 15:14:43

Ans. 1. Regulation / Enforcement / Policy / Contract , It's primary use

2. Use as a collection of utility methods(since java 8 through default methods)

3. Collecting constants together, As Interface are lighter, it makes sense to use them instead of classes if no getters and setters required.

4. Creation of Custom Annotations

5. Special services like marker interface

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 Q59. What do you look for when you do code review ?Core Java2016-12-28 13:59:38

Ans. Modularity - First sign of good code is whether it has been segregated into methods and classes appropriately. I dont mind it in excess because I believe that is forward looking strategy as applications tends to expand and eventually become hard to read.

Self Explanatory - Variables and methods should be named in a way that the code should be self explanatory even without comments. Use of Constant variables to explain use of literal.

Proper Code Reuse - If there is anything being reused , it should be moved to parent classes / methods.

Proper composition calls - Composed hierarchy should not be access in just single line. One or two levels is ok but having multiple levels make it hard to read and debug.

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Usually asked in relation to casting and ClassCastException.
 Q60. What is instanceOf operator ? Explain it's use ?Core Java2017-06-12 07:58:22

Ans. The operator instanceOf is used to verify if the specified object is the instance of specified class or interface.

Syntax if(x instanceOf ABC)

where x is an object reference and ABC could be a class name or interface name. The above statement will be true if x holds an object that is an instance of ABC or any of the child class of ABC or if x holds an object that implements ABC.

instanceOf operator is used to verify in case of downcasting. For ex -

DerivedClass extends BaseClass

x is the reference of BaseClass but holds DerivedClass object ( Polymorphism )

There is an operation that is defined in Derived Class, let's say derivedClassMethod()

We cannot call derivedClassMethod() directly using x as x is reference of BaseClass and not DerivedClass and hence can only access methods that are defined in BaseClass and overridden in derived class.

Though we can cast it to DerivedClass as following
((DerivedClass)x).derivedClassMethod();

But it may throw ClassCastException in case x doesn't hold an instance of DerivedClass at that point.

So before casting it to DerivedClass we may like to make sure that it is an instance of DerivedClass and hence won't throw ClassCastException.

So we make a check for it

if(x instanceOf DerivedClass) {
((DerivedClass)x).derivedClassMethod();
}

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers.
 Q61. Explain multithreading in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Multithreading provides better interaction with the user by distribution of task

2. Threads in Java appear to run concurrently, so it provides simulation for simultaneous activities.The processor runs each thread for a short time and switches among the threads to simulate sim-ultaneous execution (context-switching) and it make appears that each thread has its own processor.By using this feature, users can make it appear as if multiple tasks are occurring simultaneously when, in fact, each is running for only a brief time before the context is switched to the next thread.

3. We can do other things while waiting for slow I/O operations.In the java.iopackage, the class InputStreamhas a method, read(), that blocks until a byte is read from the stream or until an IOExceptionis thrown. The thread that executes this method cannot do anything elsewhile awaiting the arrival of another byte on the stream.

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 Q62. Can constructors be synchronized in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. No. Java doesn't allow multi thread access to object constructors so synchronization is not even needed.

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 Q63. What is JDBC? Describe the steps needed to execute a SQL query using JDBC.Database
Anonymous
Ans. The JDBC is a pure Java API used to execute SQL statements. It provides a set of classes and interfaces that can be used by developers to write database applications.

The steps needed to execute a SQL query using JDBC:

1. Open a connection to the database.
2. Execute a SQL statement.
3. Process th results.
4. Close the connection to the database.

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 Q64. Can we access instance variables within static methods ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Yes.we cannot access them directly but we can access them using object reference.Static methods belong to a class and not objects whereas non static members are tied to an instance. Accessing instance variables without the instance handler would mean an ambiguity regarding which instance the method is referring to and hence its prohibited.

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 Q65. Difference between C++ and Java ?Core Java
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Ans. Java does not support pointers.

Java does not support multiple inheritances.

Java does not support destructors but rather adds a finalize() method. Finalize methods are invoked by the garbage collector prior to reclaiming the memory occupied by the object, which has the finalize() method.

Java does not include structures or unions because the traditional data structures are implemented as an object oriented framework.

C++ compiles to machine language , when Java compiles to byte code .

In C++ the programmer needs to worry about freeing the allocated memory , where in Java the Garbage Collector takes care of the the unneeded / unused variables.

Java is platform independent language but c++ is depends upon operating system.

Java uses compiler and interpreter both and in c++ their is only compiler.

C++ supports operator overloading whereas Java doesn't.

Internet support is built-in Java but not in C++. However c++ has support for socket programming which can be used.

Java does not support header file, include library files just like C++ .Java use import to include different Classes and methods.

There is no goto statement in Java.

There is no scope resolution operator :: in Java. It has . using which we can qualify classes with the namespace they came from.

Java is pass by value whereas C++ is both pass by value and pass by reference.

Java Enums are objects instead of int values in C++

C++ programs runs as native executable machine code for the target and hence more near to hardware whereas Java program runs in a virtual machine.

C++ was designed mainly for systems programming, extending the C programming language whereas Java was created initially to support network computing.

C++ allows low-level addressing of data. You can manipulate machine addresses to look at anything you want. Java access is controlled.

C++ has several addressing operators . * & -> where Java has only one: the .

We can create our own package in Java(set of classes) but not in c and c++.

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  Q66. Difference between SAX and DOM Parser ?Xml
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Ans. A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document whereas A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure.

A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time whereas A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document whereas DOM parser is rich in functionality.

Use a DOM Parser if you need to refer to different document areas before giving back the information. Use SAX is you just need unrelated nuclear information from different areas.

Xerces, Crimson are SAX Parsers whereas XercesDOM, SunDOM, OracleDOM are DOM parsers.

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 Q67. What is a stream and what are the types of Streams and classes of the Streams?Core Java
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Ans. A Stream is an abstraction that either produces or consumes information. There are two types of Streams :

Byte Streams: Provide a convenient means for handling input and output of bytes.

Character Streams: Provide a convenient means for handling input & output of characters.

Byte Streams classes: Are defined by using two abstract classes, namely InputStream and OutputStream.

Character Streams classes: Are defined by using two abstract classes, namely Reader and Writer.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q68. Difference between Composition and Inheritance ?Core Java
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Ans. Inheritance means a object inheriting reusable properties of the base class. Compositions means that an abject holds other objects.

In Inheritance there is only one object in memory ( derived object ) whereas in Composition , parent object holds references of all composed objects.

From Design perspective - Inheritance is "is a" relationship among objects whereas Composition is "has a" relationship among objects.

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Frequently asked to experienced developers. Recently asked in many US interviews.
  Q69. What is database deadlock ? How can we avoid them?Database
Admin
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Ans. When multiple external resources are trying to access the DB locks and runs into cyclic wait, it may makes the DB unresponsive.

Deadlock can be avoided using variety of measures, Few listed below -

Can make a queue wherein we can verify and order the request to DB.

Less use of cursors as they lock the tables for long time.

Keeping the transaction smaller.

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 Q70. What will be the output of following code ?

public static void main(String[] args){
String name = null;
File file = new File("/folder", name);
System.out.print(file.exists());
}
Core Java
Admin
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Ans. NullPointerException

at line: "File file = new File("/folder", name);"

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 Q71. Difference between Predicate, Supplier and Consumer ? Core Java
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Ans. Predicate represents an anonymous function that accepts one argument and produces a result.

Supplier represents an anonymous function that accepts no argument and produces a result.

Consumer represents an anonymous function that accepts an argument and produces no result.

  Sample Code for Predicate

  Sample Code for Supplier

  Sample Code for Consumer

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Not frequently asked as it was introduced with Java 8.
 Q72. What is StringJoiner ?Core Java
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Ans. StringJoiner is a util method to construct a string with desired delimiter. This has been introduced with wef from Java 8.

Sample Code

StringJoiner strJoiner = new StringJoiner(".");
strJoiner.add("Buggy").add("Bread");
System.out.println(strJoiner); // prints Buggy.Bread


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 Q73. Which of the following can be marked static ?

a. Methods , Variables and Initialization Blocks.
b. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and Outer Classes and nested Classes.
c. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and Outer Classes.
d. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and nested Classes
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and nested Classes

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 Q74. Collections.sort can only be performed on ..

a. Set
b. List
c. Map
d. Any Collection implementation
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. List

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 Q75. Which of the following is false about main method ?

a. It should be declared public and static
b. it should have only 1 argument of type String array
c. We can override main method
d. We can overload main method
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. We can override main method

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 Q76. Enums cannot be declared ..

a. private
b. public
c. static
d. final
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. final

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 Q77. What are constructors and Destructors in Java ?Core Java2016-06-03 10:09:28

Ans. Constructors are used for initializing the object state once it is initialized and memory has been reserved for it.

Destructor is used to de-allocate memory allocated by objects.

There are no destructors in Java. Alternatively, Java provides Automatic garbage collection i.e automatically releasing the un-referenced memory.


  Sample Code for constructor

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Frequently asked. Among first few questions in the J2EE segment of interview.
  Q78. What is deployment descriptor ?

or

What is the use of deployment descriptor ?
Java EE2016-06-04 22:46:40

Ans. Deployment Descriptor which is usually web.xml is used to specify the classes, resources and configuration of the application and how the web server uses them to serve web requests.This file is usually added to WEB-INF folder and contains following

* Servlet entries and url mapping
* Plugins
* Some info regarding authentication / filters
* Landing Page
* Event Handlers

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 Q79. Can we have multiple main methods in a single class ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:00:02

Ans. We can overload the main method by specifying different argument types. For example -

2 main methods with different arguments is perfectly legal

public static void main();
public static void main(String[] args);

The following are not legal as compiler will complain of duplicate methods

public static void main(String[] args);
public static void main(String[] args);

Even The following are not legal as we cannot overload on return types

public static String main(String[] args);
public static void main(String[] args);

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 Q80. Which elements of a class are ignored during serialization ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:08:21

Ans. 1. Objects are serialized and not classes and hence Static variables are ignored.

2. Transient is an explicit declaration to ignore the variable during serialization and hence transient instance variables are ignored too.

3. Base class instance variables if the base class hasn't been declared serializable.

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