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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Oops' - 191 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers. Among the first few questions in many interviews.
  Q3. What are the difference between composition and inheritance in Java?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Composition - has-a relationship between objects.
Inheritance - is-a relationship between classes.

Composition - Composing object holds a reference to composed objects and hence relationship is loosely bound.
Inheritance - Derived object carries the base class definition in itself and hence its tightly bound.

Composition - Used in Dependency Injection
Inheritance - Used in Runtime Polymorphism

Composition - Single class objects can be composed within multiple classes.
Inheritance - Single class can only inherit 1 Class.

Composition - Its the relationship between objects.
Inheritance - Its the relationship between classes.

  Sample Code for inheritance

  Sample Code for composition

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q4. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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Frequently asked in Infosys and HCL Technologies ( Based on 2 feedback )
 Q5. What are different ways of object creation in Java ?Core Java
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Ans. Using new operator - new xyzClass()

Using factory methods - xyzFactory.getInstance( )

Using newInstance( ) method - (Class.forName(xyzClass))emp.newInstance( )

By cloning an already available object - (xyzClass)obj1.clone( )

  Sample Code for object initialization using clone

  Sample Code for object initialization using getInstance

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 Q6. What are points to consider in terms of access modifier when we are overriding any method?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. 1. Overriding method can not be more restrictive than the overridden method.

reason : in case of polymorphism , at object creation jvm look for actual runtime object. jvm does not look for reference type and while calling methods it look for overridden method.

If by means subclass were allowed to change the access modifier on the overriding method, then suddenly at runtime when the JVM invokes the true objects version of the method rather than the reference types version then it will be problematic

2. In case of subclass and superclass define in different package, we can override only those method which have public or protected access.

3. We can not override any private method because private methods can not be inherited and if method can not be inherited then method can not be overridden.

  Sample Code for Overriding

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  Q7. What is a Lambda Expression ? What's its use ?Core Java
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Ans. Its an anonymous method without any declaration.

Lambda Expression are useful to write shorthand Code and hence saves the effort of writing lengthy Code.

It promotes Developer productivity, Better Readable and Reliable code.

  Sample Code for lambda

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q8. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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  Q9. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protection
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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 Q10. How can we run a java program without making any object?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. By putting code within static method. With Java 6 and earlier versions, even static block can be used.

  Sample Code for static block

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 Q11. Can we use both "this()" and "super()" in a constructor ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. No, because both this and super should be the first statement.

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q12. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q13. What is a String Pool ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. String pool (String intern pool) is a special storage area in Java heap. When a string is created and if the string already exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned, instead of creating a new object and returning its reference.

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 Q14. Why every object constructor automatically call super() in Object before its own constructors?Core Java
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info@buggybread.com
Ans. Derived object carries the body of its class as well as the body of the parent class. Its body ( member elements ) is initialized using its own class constructor whereas the body ( member elements ) carried from the parent class are initialized using super class constructor. So In order to initialize the elements of the parent class before its own elements are even initialized, super is called.

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Very frequently asked in HCL Tech ( Based of 4 inputs )
  Q15. Write a Program to reverse a string iteratively and recursivelyCore Java

Ans. Using String method -

new StringBuffer(str).reverse().toString();

Iterative -

Strategy - Loop through each character of a String from last to first and append the character to StringBuilder / StringBuffer

public static String getReverseString(String str){
StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer(str.length);
for(int counter=str.length -1 ; counter>=0;counter--){
strBuffer.append(str.charAt(counter));
}
return strBuffer;
}

Recursive -

Strategy - Call the method with substring starting from 2nd character recursively till we have just 1 character.

public static String getReverseString(String str){
if(str.length <= 1){
return str;
}
return (getReverseString(str.subString(1)) + str.charAt(0);
}

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Frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q16. What are the methods of Object Class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. clone() - Creates and returns a copy of this object.

equals() - Indicates whether some other object is "equal to" this one.

finalize() - Called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

getClass() - Returns the runtime class of an object.

hashCode() - Returns a hash code value for the object.

toString() - Returns a string representation of the object.

notify(), notifyAll(), and wait() - Play a part in synchronizing the activities of independently running threads in a program.

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 Q17. Can you give a real world example of Encapsulation and Abstraction ?Core Java2016-05-29 13:47:31

Ans. Car Engine is an example of encapsulation and abstraction. You ignite the car using an interface called starter and least bothered about how the tire actually moves (This is abstraction). The engine encapsulates the complete process to itself only and doesn't allow you to start the other components like the radiator etc ( this is excapsulation )

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q18. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q19. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q20. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q21. What is Serialization ? Why do we need it ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Storing the state of an object in a file or other medium is called serialization.

Classes can communicate only if they are built together ( as they need Byte code for communication ). What if we need to enable communication between different applications ( i.e they have been built independently or even they reside at different locations ), We need a mechanism that will transfer the Bean state to a Medium than can be transferred to the receiving application.

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 Q22. Can we access instance variables within static methods ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Yes.we cannot access them directly but we can access them using object reference.Static methods belong to a class and not objects whereas non static members are tied to an instance. Accessing instance variables without the instance handler would mean an ambiguity regarding which instance the method is referring to and hence its prohibited.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
  Q23. Difference between Composition and Inheritance ?Core Java
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Ans. Inheritance means a object inheriting reusable properties of the base class. Compositions means that an abject holds other objects.

In Inheritance there is only one object in memory ( derived object ) whereas in Composition , parent object holds references of all composed objects.

From Design perspective - Inheritance is "is a" relationship among objects whereas Composition is "has a" relationship among objects.

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 Q24. Which of the following can be marked static ?

a. Methods , Variables and Initialization Blocks.
b. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and Outer Classes and nested Classes.
c. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and Outer Classes.
d. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and nested Classes
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and nested Classes

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Frequently asked. Among first few questions in the J2EE segment of interview.
  Q25. What is deployment descriptor ?

or

What is the use of deployment descriptor ?
Java EE2016-06-04 22:46:40

Ans. Deployment Descriptor which is usually web.xml is used to specify the classes, resources and configuration of the application and how the web server uses them to serve web requests.This file is usually added to WEB-INF folder and contains following

* Servlet entries and url mapping
* Plugins
* Some info regarding authentication / filters
* Landing Page
* Event Handlers

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  Q26. Does Java support Multiple Inheritance ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Java doesn't support multiple inheritance. Interfaces does't facilitate inheritance and hence implementation of multiple interfaces doesn't make multiple inheritance.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q27. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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 Q28. Can we serialize static variables ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. No. Only Object and its members are serialized. Static variables are shared variables and doesn't correspond to a specific object.

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 Q29. What one should take care of, while serializing the object?
Anonymous
Ans. One should make sure that all the included objects are also serializable. If any of the objects is not serializable then it throws a NotSerializable Exception.

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 Q30. Are constructors inherited? Can a subclass call the parent's class constructor? When?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. You cannot inherit a constructor. That is, you cannot create a instance of a subclass using a constructor of one of it's superclasses. One of the main reasons is because you probably don't want to override the superclasses constructor, which would be possible if they were inherited. By giving the developer the ability to override a superclasses constructor you would erode the encapsulation abilities of the language.

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 Q31. Difference between object instantiation and construction ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Though It's often confused with each other, Object Creation ( Instantiation ) and Initialization ( Construction ) are different things in Java. Construction follows object creation.

Object Creation is the process to create the object in memory and returning its handler. Java provides New keyword for object creation.

Initialization is the process of setting the initial / default values to the members. Constructor is used for this purpose. If we don't provide any constructor, Java provides one default implementation to set the default values according to the member data types.

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Very frequently asked in phone and walk in interviews.
  Q32. What are Marker Interfaces ? Name few Java marker interfaces ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. These are the interfaces which have no declared methods.Serializable and cloneable are marker interfaces.

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 Q33. Difference Between this() and super() ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. 1.this is a reference to the current object in which this keyword is used whereas super is a reference used to access members specific to the parent Class.

2.this is primarily used for accessing member variables if local variables have same name, for constructor chaining and for passing itself to some method whereas super is primarily used to initialize base class members within derived class constructor.

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 Q34. How compiler handles the exceptions in overriding ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. 1)The overriding methods can throw any runtime Exception , here in the case of runtime exception overriding method (subclass method) should not worry about exception being thrown by superclass method.

2)If superclass method does not throw any exception then while overriding, the subclass method can not throw any new checked exception but it can throw any runtime exception

3) Different exceptions in java follow some hierarchy tree(inheritance). In this case , if superclass method throws any checked exception , then while overriding the method in subclass we can not throw any new checked exception or any checked exception which are higher in hierarchy than the exception thrown in superclass method

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 Q35. Similarity and Difference between static block and static method ?Core Java
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Ans. Both belong to the class as a whole and not to the individual objects. Static methods are explicitly called for execution whereas Static block gets executed when the Class gets loaded by the JVM.

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 Q36. Which of the following is false about Constructors ?

a. Constructor can be overloaded
b. A no argument constructor is provided by the compiler if we declare only constructors with arguments.
c. Constructors shouldn't have any return types , not even void.
d. If super is not explicitly called, still super() is intrinsically added by the compiler.
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. A no argument constructor is provided by the compiler if we declare only constructors with arguments.

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 Q37. Which of the following Java feature promotes access protection or Hiding ?

a. Inheritance
b. Encapsulation
c. Abstraction
d. Composition
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Encapsulation

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 Q38. Why Java is not considered pure OOP's language ?Core Java

Ans. There are 2 reasons for it.

1. Usage of Primitive types - Though Java provides classes for the primitive data types but as the usage of primitives is permissible, its considered unpure OOP's language.

2. Usage of Static members - Static members belong to the class and not objects and hence not considered fit for pure OOP's programming.

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 Q39. When are static variables loaded in memory ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are loaded at runtime when the respective Class is loaded.

  Sample Code for static variable

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 Q40. Difference between Abstract and Concrete Class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Abstract classes are only meant to be sub classed and not meant to be instantiated whereas concrete classes are meant to be instantiated.

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