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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Orm' - 64 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q1. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q2. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
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Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Frequently asked question in companies using hibernate.
  Q3. Difference between first level and second level cache in hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. 1. First level cache is enabled by default whereas Second level cache needs to be enabled explicitly.

2. First level Cache came with Hibernate 1.0 whereas Second level cache came with Hibernate 3.0.

3. First level Cache is Session specific whereas Second level cache is shared by sessions that is why First level cache is considered local and second level cache is considered global.

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q4. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q5. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q6. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q7. Difference between Vector and ArrayList ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Vectors are synchronized whereas Array lists are not.

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Very frequently asked in phone and walk in interviews.
  Q8. What are Marker Interfaces ? Name few Java marker interfaces ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. These are the interfaces which have no declared methods.Serializable and cloneable are marker interfaces.

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 Q9. How to configure second level cache in Hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. 1. Configure Provider class in Hibernate configuration file.

2. Add Cache usage tag ( read-only or read-write ) in mapping files ( hbm ).

3. Create an XML file called ehcache.xml and place in classpath which contains time settings and update settings, behavior of cache , lifetime and idletime of Pojos, how many objects are allowed.

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 Q10. What things you would care about to improve the performance of Application if its identified that its DB communication that needs to be improved ?Solution
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Ans. 1. Query Optimization ( Query Rewriting , Prepared Statements )

2. Restructuring Indexes.

3. DB Caching Tuning ( if using ORM )

4. Identifying the problems ( if any ) with the ORM Strategy ( If using ORM )

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 Q11. Which of the following Java feature promotes access protection or Hiding ?

a. Inheritance
b. Encapsulation
c. Abstraction
d. Composition
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Encapsulation

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 Q12. Why Java is not considered pure OOP's language ?Core Java

Ans. There are 2 reasons for it.

1. Usage of Primitive types - Though Java provides classes for the primitive data types but as the usage of primitives is permissible, its considered unpure OOP's language.

2. Usage of Static members - Static members belong to the class and not objects and hence not considered fit for pure OOP's programming.

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This question can be asked in different variants like performace improvement of an application, improving performance for DB communication etc.
 Q13. What are the ways in which execution time of the code can be improved ?Solution2016-05-29 09:42:39

Ans. This depends on entirely upon the code type. For example

1.If its just logic, we can try it to short circuit or put the if / switch case with maximum probability in the beginning.

2. Can use faster data structures, for eg - random retrieval instead of sequence / iterator

3. Working with primitive types or even bytes instead of Objects, even though it may result in marginal improvement.

4. If its service call, then service call with bulk load can help

5. If DB Operation, then with use of Indices , Views or using ORM , cache etc.


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Frequently asked question for intermediate developers.
  Q14. What is Volatile keyword used for ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Volatile is a declaration that a variable can be accessed by multiple threads and hence shouldnt be cached.

  Sample Code for volatile

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 Q15. What is PermGen or Permanent Generation ?Core Java
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Ans. The memory pool containing all the reflective data of the java virtual machine itself, such as class and method objects. With Java VMs that use class data sharing, this generation is divided into read-only and read-write areas. The Permanent generation contains metadata required by the JVM to describe the classes and methods used in the application. The permanent generation is populated by the JVM at runtime based on classes in use by the application. In addition, Java SE library classes and methods may be stored here.

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  Q16. Write a method to check if input String is Palindrome?Core Java
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Ans. private static boolean isPalindrome(String str) {

if (str == null)
return false;

StringBuilder strBuilder = new StringBuilder(str);

strBuilder.reverse();

return strBuilder.toString().equals(str);

}

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Very frequently asked in HCL Tech ( Based of 4 inputs )
  Q17. Write a program to reverse a string iteratively and recursively ?Core Java
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Ans. Using String method -

new StringBuffer(str).reverse().toString();

Iterative -

public static String getReverseString(String str){
StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer(str.length);
for(int counter=str.length -1 ; counter>=0;counter--){
strBuffer.append(str.charAt(counter));
}
return strBuffer;
}

Recursive -

public static String getReverseString(String str){
if(str.length <= 1){
return str;
}
return (getReverseString(str.subString(1)) + str.charAt(0);
}

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 Q18. What are the advantages of Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. 1. No need to know SQL, RDBMS, and DB Schema.
2. Underlying Database can be changed without much effort by changing SQL dialect and DB connection.
3.Improved Performance by means of Caching.

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 Q19. What is the purpose of dialect configured in Hibernate configuration file ?Hibernate
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Ans. It tells the framework which SQL varient to generate.

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  Q20. What is a self Join and give an example of a self Join ?

or

What is self Join and What is it's purpose ?
Database2016-06-30 20:13:35

Ans. When a Table Join itself , it's a Self Join. For example - we like to know the pair of department names where first dept has lesser employees than the later.

Select D1.name , D2.name from Dept D1, Dept D2 where D1.employee_count < D2.employee_count

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Very frequently asked. Usually asked in this format or as difference with interfaces / concrete classes.
  Q21. What is an abstract class ?Core Java2017-01-10 13:12:20

Ans. Abstract class is the class that is not supposed to be instantiated. The purpose of the class to only have extension to the derived class.

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 Q22. What are the phases of the JSP life cycle ?Java EE
Admin
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Ans. Translation of JSP PageCompilation of JSP PageClassloading (class file is loaded by the classloader)Instantiation (Object of the Generated Servlet is created).Initialization ( jspInit() method is invoked by the container).Reqeust processing ( _jspService() method is invoked by the container).Destroy ( jspDestroy() method is invoked by the container).

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 Q23. What are the platforms supported by Java Programming Language?Core Java
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Ans. Java runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX/Linux like HP-Unix, Sun Solaris, Redhat Linux, Ubuntu, CentOS, etc

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 Q24. Difference between Abstraction and Implementation hiding ?
Anonymous
Ans. Implementation Hiding is a broader concept. Abstraction is a way of implementation hiding in OOP's.

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 Q25. What is Java bytecode ?
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Ans. Java bytecode is the instruction set of the Java virtual machine. Each bytecode is composed by one, or two bytes that represent the instruction, along with zero or more bytes for passing parameters.

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 Q26. Is JVM a overhead ?
Admin
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Ans. Yes and No. JVM is an extra layer that translates Byte Code into Machine Code. So Comparing to languages like C, Java provides an additional layer of translating the Source Code.

C++ Compiler - Source Code --> Machine Code
Java Compiler - Source Code --> Byte Code , JVM - Byte Code --> Machine Code

Though it looks like an overhead but this additional translation allows Java to run Apps on all platforms as JVM provides the translation to the Machine code as per the underlying Operating System.


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 Q27. What is Byte Code ? Why Java's intermediary Code is called Byte Code ?
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Ans. Bytecode is a highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by the Java run-time system. Its called Byte Code because each instruction is of 1-2 bytes.

Sample instructions in Byte Code -

1: istore_1
2: iload_1
3: sipush 1000
6: if_icmpge 44
9: iconst_2
10: istore_2

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 Q28. Which of the following code is correct ?

a. DateFormat df = DateFormat.getInstance();
b. DateFormat df = DateFormat.getDateInstance();
c. DateFormat df = DateFormat.getInstance(DateFormat.FULL);
d. DateFormat df = DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.FULL);
Core Java
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Ans. All except c are correct.

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 Q29. What is the use of parse method in DateFormat ?
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Ans. It is used to parse String to get the Date Object with initialized date.

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 Q30. Which of the following is not a valid NumberFormat initialization ?

a. NumberFormat.getInstance()
b. NumberFormat.getDateInstance()
c. NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance()
d. NumberFormat.getNumberInstance()
Core Java
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Ans. b i.e NumberFormat.getDateInstance()

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 Q31. Which of the following code is correct ?

a. Date date = DateFormat.newInstance(DateFormat.LONG, Locale.US).parse(str);

b. Date date = DateFormat.newInstance(DateFormat.LONG, Locale.US).format(str);

c. Date date = DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.LONG, Locale.US).parse(str);
Core Java
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Ans. c

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 Q32. What are the the methods to clear cache in Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. Evict() and clear(). Evist is used to clear a particular object from the cache whereas clear clears the complete local cache.

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 Q33. What are different types of second level cache ?Hibernate
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Ans. 1. EHCache ( Easy Hibernate )
2. OSCache ( Open Symphony )
3. Swarm Cache ( JBoss )
4. Tree Cache ( JBoss )

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 Q34. Can we disable first level cache ? What should one do if we don't want an object to be cached ?Hibernate
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Ans. No.We can either call evict after the object retrieval or can use separate sessions.

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 Q35. What is Hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. Hibernate is a Java ORM Framework.

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 Q36. What are the different types of inheritance in Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. Table Per Class , Table per Sub Class , Table per Concrete Class

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 Q37. Which class elements are not persisted ?Hibernate
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Ans. Static and Transient.

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 Q38. What will the following code do ?

String dateStr = "2011 11 19";
DateFormat dateFormat = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd");
Date date = dateFormat.parse(dateStr);
System.out.println(date);

admin
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Ans. It will throw the ParseException as the date format doesn't abide with the format of the specified date.

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 Q39. What is the difference between JPA and Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. JPA or Java Persistence API is a standard specification for ORM implementations whereas Hibernate is the actual ORM implementation or framework.

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 Q40. What is the advantage of JPA ?Database
Admin
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Ans. Its a specification that guides the implementation of ORM frameworks. Implementations abiding by the specification would mean that one can be replaced with other in an application without much hassle. Only the Features that are added over the specification needs to be taken care of if any such change is made.

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