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HCL Technologies

HCL Technologies Limited is an Indian multinational IT services company, headquartered in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a subsidiary of HCL Enterprise.

Link: https://www.hcltech.com/
   




Interview Questions and Answers for 'HCL Technologies' - 156 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q3. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers. Among the first few questions in many interviews.
  Q4. What are the difference between composition and inheritance in Java?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Composition - has-a relationship between objects.
Inheritance - is-a relationship between classes.

Composition - Composing object holds a reference to composed objects and hence relationship is loosely bound.
Inheritance - Derived object carries the base class definition in itself and hence its tightly bound.

Composition - Used in Dependency Injection
Inheritance - Used in Runtime Polymorphism

Composition - Single class objects can be composed within multiple classes.
Inheritance - Single class can only inherit 1 Class.

Composition - Its the relationship between objects.
Inheritance - Its the relationship between classes.

  Sample Code for inheritance

  Sample Code for composition

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  Q5. Which are the different segments of memory ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Stack Segment - Contains primitives, Class / Interface names and references.

2. Heap Segment - Contains all created objects in runtime, objects only plus their object attributes (instance variables), Static variables are also stored in heap.

3. Code Segment - The segment where the actual compiled Java bytecodes resides when loaded

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 Q6. Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of memory?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Garbage collection does not guarantee that a program will not run out of memory. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection

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  Q7. What do you mean by "Java is a statically typed language" ?Core Java
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Ans. It means that the type of variables are checked at compile time in Java.The main advantage here is that all kinds of checking can be done by the compiler and hence will reduce bugs.

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q8. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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Frequently asked in Infosys and HCL Technologies ( Based on 2 feedback )
 Q9. What are different ways of object creation in Java ?Core Java
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Ans. Using new operator - new xyzClass()

Using factory methods - xyzFactory.getInstance( )

Using newInstance( ) method - (Class.forName(xyzClass))emp.newInstance( )

By cloning an already available object - (xyzClass)obj1.clone( )

  Sample Code for object initialization using clone

  Sample Code for object initialization using getInstance

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  Q10. What is a Lambda Expression ? What's its use ?Core Java
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Ans. Its an anonymous method without any declaration.

Lambda Expression are useful to write shorthand Code and hence saves the effort of writing lengthy Code.

It promotes Developer productivity, Better Readable and Reliable code.

  Sample Code for lambda

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q11. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
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Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Frequently asked question in companies using Hibernate.
  Q12. What is Lazy Initialization in Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. It's a feature to lazily initialize dependencies , relationship and associations from the Database. Any related references marked as @OneToMany or @ManyToMany are loaded lazily i.e when they are accessed and not when the parent is loaded.

  Sample Code for Lazy Initialization

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  Q13. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protection
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Recently asked in TCS , Tech Mahindra, HCL , Accenture and Fidelity.
  Q14. Explain Flow of Spring MVC ?Spring
Admin
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Ans. The DispatcherServlet configured in web.xml file receives the request.

The DispatcherServlet finds the appropriate Controller with the help of HandlerMapping and then invokes associated Controller.

Then the Controller executes the logic business logic and then returns ModeAndView object to the DispatcherServlet.

The DispatcherServlet determines the view from the ModelAndView object.

Then the DispatcherServlet passes the model object to the View.

The View is rendered and the Dispatcher Servlet sends the output to the Servlet container.

Finally Servlet Container sends the result back to the user.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q15. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
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Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q16. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Frequently asked in Cognizant ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q17. What are Inner , Outer , Left and Right Joins in SQL ?Database2017-01-09 13:07:55

Ans. Inner join is the intersection of two tables on the condition defined by the where clause i.e will get records from both tables matched by a column.

Outer join is the union of two tables i.e will get all records from both tables and will put null in the columns where related records are not present.

Left Outer join is the left union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the left and values from the right table for related records else null for the columns from right table.

Right Outer join is the right union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the right and values from the left table for related records else null for the columns from left table.

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  Q18. What is a String Pool ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. String pool (String intern pool) is a special storage area in Java heap. When a string is created and if the string already exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned, instead of creating a new object and returning its reference.

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Frequently asked question in companies using hibernate.
  Q19. Difference between first level and second level cache in hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. 1. First level cache is enabled by default whereas Second level cache needs to be enabled explicitly.

2. First level Cache came with Hibernate 1.0 whereas Second level cache came with Hibernate 3.0.

3. First level Cache is Session specific whereas Second level cache is shared by sessions that is why First level cache is considered local and second level cache is considered global.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q20. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very frequently asked across all types of companies.
  Q21. Difference between HashMap and Hashtable?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashtable is synchronized whereas HashMap is not.HashMap allows null values whereas Hashtable doesnt allow null values.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q22. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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 Q23. Which keyword is used to provide explicit access of a code block to single thread ?

a. Transient
b. Final
c. Explicit
d. Synchronized
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Synchronized

  Sample Code for Synchronized

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 Q24. Can we declare static variables as transient ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:12:48

Ans. It's weird that compiler doesn't complain if we declare transient with static variable because it makes no sense. At least a warning message saying "transient is useless in this situation" would have helped with code cleaning.

Static variables are never serialized and transient is an indication that the specified variable shouldn't be serialized so its kind of double enforcement not to serialize.

It could be that as it makes no different to the variable behavior and hence using both keywords with a variable are permitted.

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 Q25. Difference between JVM, JRE and JDK ?Core Java2017-10-31 08:36:22

Ans. JDK(Java Development kit) = Development Kit comprising of JVM , library and development tools for developers

JRE (Java Run time Environment) - Comprise of JVM and set of libraries

JVM(Java Virtual Machine) = Interpreter which reads the .class file line by line.

When we install JDK, JRE also get installed so we can write,compile and excute our code. Used by developer. Without JDK we can only execute the program using JRE.

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q26. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q27. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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 Q28. What will this code print ?

String a = new String ("TEST");
String b = new String ("TEST");
if(a == b) {
System.out.println ("TRUE");
} else {
System.out.println ("FALSE");
}
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. FALSE. == operator compares object references, a and b are references to two different objects, hence the FALSE. .equals method is used to compare string object content.

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  Q29. What is casting?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric types and casting between object references. Casting between numeric types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller values, such as byte values. Casting between object references is used to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or array type reference

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q30. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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  Q31. What is Serialization ? Why do we need it ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Storing the state of an object in a file or other medium is called serialization.

Classes can communicate only if they are built together ( as they need Byte code for communication ). What if we need to enable communication between different applications ( i.e they have been built independently or even they reside at different locations ), We need a mechanism that will transfer the Bean state to a Medium than can be transferred to the receiving application.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
  Q32. Difference between Composition and Inheritance ?Core Java
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Ans. Inheritance means a object inheriting reusable properties of the base class. Compositions means that an abject holds other objects.

In Inheritance there is only one object in memory ( derived object ) whereas in Composition , parent object holds references of all composed objects.

From Design perspective - Inheritance is "is a" relationship among objects whereas Composition is "has a" relationship among objects.

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q33. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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Frequently asked. Among first few questions in the J2EE segment of interview.
  Q34. What is deployment descriptor ?

or

What is the use of deployment descriptor ?
Java EE2016-06-04 22:46:40

Ans. Deployment Descriptor which is usually web.xml is used to specify the classes, resources and configuration of the application and how the web server uses them to serve web requests.This file is usually added to WEB-INF folder and contains following

* Servlet entries and url mapping
* Plugins
* Some info regarding authentication / filters
* Landing Page
* Event Handlers

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 Q35. Can we have multiple main methods in a single class ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:00:02

Ans. We can overload the main method by specifying different argument types. For example -

2 main methods with different arguments is perfectly legal

public static void main();
public static void main(String[] args);

The following are not legal as compiler will complain of duplicate methods

public static void main(String[] args);
public static void main(String[] args);

Even The following are not legal as we cannot overload on return types

public static String main(String[] args);
public static void main(String[] args);

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 Q36. Which elements of a class are ignored during serialization ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:08:21

Ans. 1. Objects are serialized and not classes and hence Static variables are ignored.

2. Transient is an explicit declaration to ignore the variable during serialization and hence transient instance variables are ignored too.

3. Base class instance variables if the base class hasn't been declared serializable.

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  Q37. What are the different types of inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Simple Inner Class,
Local Inner Class,
Anonymous Inner Class,
Static Nested Inner Class.

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Frequently asked in Indian Service Companies. Tech Mahindra ( Based on 3 inputs ) and Infosys ( 3 inputs )
  Q38. What is the difference between List, Set and Map ?

or

What are the different Java Collections Interfaces ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. List - Members are stored in sequence in memory and can be accessed through index.
Set - There is no relevance of sequence and index. Sets doesn't contain duplicates whereas multiset can have duplicates.
Map - Contains Key , Value pairs.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q39. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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Very frequently asked. Usually asked in different variants like Diff between StringBuffer , String Builder ; Difference between StringBuilder and String class; Choice between these classes etc.
  Q40. What is the difference between StringBuffer and String class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. A string buffer implements a mutable sequence of characters. A string buffer is like a String, but can be modified. At any point in time it contains some particular sequence of characters, but the length and content of the sequence can be changed through certain method calls.

The String class represents character strings. All string literals in Java programs, such as "abc" are constant and implemented as instances of this class; their values cannot be changed after they are created.

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