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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Atos' - 69 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback ) and Epam Systems
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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  Q2. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java
Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protection
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q3. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Frequently asked in Infosys and HCL Technologies ( Based on 2 feedback )
 Q4. What are different ways of object creation in Java ?Core Java
Ans. Using new operator - new xyzClass()

Using factory methods - xyzFactory.getInstance( )

Using newInstance( ) method - (Class.forName(xyzClass))emp.newInstance( )

By cloning an already available object - (xyzClass)obj1.clone( )

  Sample Code for object initialization using clone

  Sample Code for object initialization using getInstance

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Frequently asked question in companies using Hibernate.
  Q5. What is Lazy Initialization in Hibernate ?Hibernate
Ans. It's a feature to lazily initialize dependencies , relationship and associations from the Database. Any related references marked as @OneToMany or @ManyToMany are loaded lazily i.e when they are accessed and not when the parent is loaded.

  Sample Code for Lazy Initialization

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q6. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q7. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java
Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Frequently asked.
 Q8. If you are given a choice to use either ArrayList and LinkedList, Which one would you use and Why ?Core Java
Ans. ArrayList are implemented in memory as arrays and hence allows fast retrieval through indices but are costly if new elements are to be inserted in between other elements. LinkedList allows for constant-time insertions or removals using iterators, but only sequential access of elements

1. Retrieval - If Elements are to be retrieved sequentially only, Linked List is preferred.

2. Insertion - If new Elements are to be inserted in between other elements , Linked List is preferred.

3. Search - Binary Search and other optimized way of searching is not possible on Linked List.

4. Sorting - Initial sorting could be pain but lateral addition of elements in a sorted list is good with linked list.

5. Adding Elements - If sufficiently large elements needs to be added very frequently ,Linked List is preferable as elements don't need consecutive memory location.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Usually asked in relation to casting and ClassCastException.
 Q9. What is instanceOf operator ? Explain it's use ?Core Java
Ans. The operator instanceOf is used to verify if the specified object is the instance of specified class or interface.

Syntax if(x instanceOf ABC)

where x is an object reference and ABC could be a class name or interface name. The above statement will be true if x holds an object that is an instance of ABC or any of the child class of ABC or if x holds an object that implements ABC.

instanceOf operator is used to verify in case of downcasting. For ex -

DerivedClass extends BaseClass

x is the reference of BaseClass but holds DerivedClass object ( Polymorphism )

There is an operation that is defined in Derived Class, let's say derivedClassMethod()

We cannot call derivedClassMethod() directly using x as x is reference of BaseClass and not DerivedClass and hence can only access methods that are defined in BaseClass and overridden in derived class.

Though we can cast it to DerivedClass as following
((DerivedClass)x).derivedClassMethod();

But it may throw ClassCastException in case x doesn't hold an instance of DerivedClass at that point.

So before casting it to DerivedClass we may like to make sure that it is an instance of DerivedClass and hence won't throw ClassCastException.

So we make a check for it

if(x instanceOf DerivedClass) {
((DerivedClass)x).derivedClassMethod();
}

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     instanceOf  instanceOf operator  Why we need instanceOf operator  use of instanceOf operator     Asked in 2 Companies      Intermediate        frequent


Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q10. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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 Q11. How to find whether a given integer is odd or even without use of modulus operator in java?Core Java
Ans. public static void main(String ar[])
{
int n=5;
if((n/2)*2==n)
{
System.out.println("Even Number ");
}
else
{
System.out.println("Odd Number ");
}
}

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 Q12. What is the difference between the following two code lines ?

1. new OuterClass().new InnerClass();

2. new OuterClass.InnerClass();
Core Java
Ans. In first case we are trying to initialize Inner class object using the instance of Outer Class whereas in second case we are trying to initialize the Inner class object directly using the Outer class name.

In second case , Inner class is "static inner class" as we cannot access "non static inner class" using Classname alone.

In first case, the inner class could be either "static inner class" or "non static inner class".

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 Q13. What are the design considerations while making a choice between using interface and abstract class ?Core Java
Ans. Keep it as a Abstract Class if its a "Is a" Relationsship and should do subset/all of the functionality. Keep it as Interface if its a "Should Do" relationship.

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Frequently asked in CTS ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q14. What is the difference between comparable and comparator in java.util pkg?Core Java
Ans. Comparable interface is used for single sequence sorting i.e.sorting the objects based on single data member where as comparator interface is used to sort the object based on multiple data members.

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 Q15. According to Java Operator precedence, which operator is considered to be with highest precedence?Core Java
Ans. Postfix operators i.e () [] . is at the highest precedence.

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 Q16. Difference between new operator and Class.forName().newInstance() ?
Ans. new operator is used to statically create an instance of object. newInstance() is used to create an object dynamically ( like if the class name needs to be picked from configuration file ). If you know what class needs to be initialized , new is the optimized way of instantiating Class.

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 Q17. What is comparator interface used for ?Core Java
Ans. The purpose of comparator interface is to compare objects of the same class to identify the sorting order. Sorted Collection Classes ( TreeSet, TreeMap ) have been designed such to look for this method to identify the sorting order, that is why class need to implement Comparator interface to qualify its objects to be part of Sorted Collections.

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Frequently asked Generic Question.
  Q18. Why do you want to work for our company ?General
Ans. [Open Ended Answer]

Usually answered stating your keen interest in the role offered and challenges and opportunities the role offers.

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 Q19. Which type of memory is cleaned / recovered by garbage collection - stack or heap ?Core Java
Ans. Heap memory.

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 Q20. Does java supports operator overloading ?Core Java
Ans. No

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Frequently asked.
  Q21. What is an Iterator?Core Java
Ans. Iterator is an interface that provides methods to iterate over any Collection.

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 Q22. Difference between Class#getInstance() and new operator ?
Ans. Class.getInstance doesn't call the constructor whereas if we create an object using new operator , we need to have a matching constructor or copiler should provide a default constructor.

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 Q23. What is the difference between >> and >>>?
Ans. Both bitwise right shift operator ( >> ) and bitwise zero fill right shift operator ( >>> ) are used to shift the bits towards right. The difference is that >> will protect the sign bit whereas the >>> operator will not protect the sign bit. It always fills 0 in the sign bit.

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 Q24. Which Java operator is right associative?Core Java
Ans. The = operator is right associative.

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 Q25. What are few iterator classes provided by Java ?
Ans. http://www.buggybread.com/2015/01/java-iterator-classes-and-interfaces.html

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 Q26. In which cases isn't instanceof operator a bad practice?Core Java
Ans. To avoid ClassCastException.

Though the following code will compile fine but will result in ClassCastException during runtime.

Fruit fruit = new Apple();
Banana banana = Banana(fruit); // ClassCastException


This code will not give compile time error as Banana and Fruit are related as Banana either extends or implement Fruit, So downcasting is acceptable. With this code we assume that the Fruit handler will have the Apple object at that point, violating which the code will throw the exception.

This exception can be avoided by following code.

Fruit fruit = new Apple();
if(fruit instanceOf Banana){
Banana banana = Banana(fruit); // ClassCastException
}

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 Q27. Difference between prefix and postfix increment operator ?
Ans. Prefix operator performs the increment and then assignment whereas its inverse for postfix operator.

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 Q28. What are fail-fast Iterators ?Core Java
Ans. Fail-fast iterators detect illegal concurrent modification during iteration and fail quickly and cleanly rather than risking arbitrary, non deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in future. Example could be of an Iterator failing if it smells ConcurrentModificationException.

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 Q29. Write code to check if an integer is odd or even using ternary operator
Ans. http://javasearch.buggybread.com/CodeSnippets/searchCodeSamples.php?&category=code&searchOption&keyword=963

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 Q30. Is Iterator a class ?
Ans. No, iterator is an interface that is used to parse through the elements of a Collection

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