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Interview Questions and Answers for 'IBM' - 98 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q3. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q4. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
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Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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  Q5. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protection
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Recently asked in TCS , Tech Mahindra, HCL , Accenture and Fidelity.
  Q6. Explain Flow of Spring MVC ?Spring
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Ans. The DispatcherServlet configured in web.xml file receives the request.

The DispatcherServlet finds the appropriate Controller with the help of HandlerMapping and then invokes associated Controller.

Then the Controller executes the logic business logic and then returns ModeAndView object to the DispatcherServlet.

The DispatcherServlet determines the view from the ModelAndView object.

Then the DispatcherServlet passes the model object to the View.

The View is rendered and the Dispatcher Servlet sends the output to the Servlet container.

Finally Servlet Container sends the result back to the user.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q7. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
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Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Frequently asked in Cognizant ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q8. What are Inner , Outer , Left and Right Joins in SQL ?Database2017-01-09 13:07:55

Ans. Inner join is the intersection of two tables on the condition defined by the where clause i.e will get records from both tables matched by a column.

Outer join is the union of two tables i.e will get all records from both tables and will put null in the columns where related records are not present.

Left Outer join is the left union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the left and values from the right table for related records else null for the columns from right table.

Right Outer join is the right union of two tables i.e all records from the table on the right and values from the left table for related records else null for the columns from left table.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q9. Difference between TreeMap and HashMap ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are different the way their elements are stored in memory. TreeMap stores the Keys in order whereas HashMap stores the key value pairs randomly.

  Sample Code for treemap

  Sample Code for hashmap

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q10. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q11. Why do we write public static void main ? Can we use some other syntax too for main ?Core Java
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Ans. 1. public is the access modifier that makes the method accessible from anywhere, static is the keyword that makes it accessible even without creating any object, void means it doesn't return anything , String args[] is the array of argument that the method receives.

2. If we use main without the string args , it will compile correctly as Java will treat it as just another method. It wont be the method "main" which Java looks for when it looks to execute the class and hence will throw

Error: Main method not found in class , please define the main method as:
public static void main(String[] args)

3. Main is not a keyword but a special string that Java looks for while initiating the main thread.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q12. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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Very Frequently asked across all type of companies and across all levels.
  Q13. Difference between Public, Private, Default and Protected ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Private - Not accessible outside object scope.

Public - Accessible from anywhere.

Default - Accessible from anywhere within same package.

Protected - Accessible from object and the sub class objects.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q14. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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Frequently asked. Among first few questions in the J2EE segment of interview.
  Q15. What is deployment descriptor ?

or

What is the use of deployment descriptor ?
Java EE2016-06-04 22:46:40

Ans. Deployment Descriptor which is usually web.xml is used to specify the classes, resources and configuration of the application and how the web server uses them to serve web requests.This file is usually added to WEB-INF folder and contains following

* Servlet entries and url mapping
* Plugins
* Some info regarding authentication / filters
* Landing Page
* Event Handlers

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  Q16. What are the different types of inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Simple Inner Class,
Local Inner Class,
Anonymous Inner Class,
Static Nested Inner Class.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q17. What is a Final Variable ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Final variable is a variable constant that cannot be changed after initialization.

  Sample Code for final variable

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Advanced level question. Recently asked in few Indian service companies ( Based on 3 inputs )
 Q18. What are various types of Class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
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Ans. Bootstrap - Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages.

Extensions - Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory - usually lib/ext directory of the JRE

System - Loads classes from system classpath.

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 Q19. Difference between static vs. dynamic class loading?Core Java
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Ans. static loading - Classes are statically loaded with Java new operator.

dynamic class loading - Dynamic loading is a technique for programmatically invoking the functions of a class loader at run time.

Class.forName (Test className);

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 Q20. What is JAXB ?Xml
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Ans. Stands for Java API for XML Binding. This standard defines a mechanism for writing out Java objects as XML and for creating Java objects from XML structures.

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 Q21. What are the features of encapsulation ?Core Java
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Ans. Combine the data of our application and its manipulation at one place.

Encapsulation Allow the state of an object to be accessed and modified through behaviors.

Reduce the coupling of modules and increase the cohesion inside them.

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Frequently asked at HCL Technologies ( Based on 3 feedback )
  Q22. Difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Checked exceptions are the exceptions for which compiler throws an errors if they are not checked whereas unchecked exceptions are caught during run time only and hence can't be checked.

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Frequently asked.
  Q23. What is an Iterator?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Iterator is an interface that provides methods to iterate over any Collection.

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 Q24. Explain use of nested or inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Sometime we just need classes or class objects just to be used as part of a particular class or objects. Making them non nested won't make any difference as far as functionality is concerner but making them Nested provide a level of convenience and protection fro, being used anywhere else. Moreover it helps reducing the Code.

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 Q25. What is marshalling ?Xml
Anonymous
Ans. Its the process of creating XML structures out of Java Objects which is used to traverse information across the network.

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  Q26. What is the use of HashCode in objects ?Core Java
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Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc.

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 Q27. What are different types of dependency injections ?Design 2017-11-07 09:37:47

Ans. Setter injection
Constructor injection
Interface injection
Look-up method/method injection

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 Q28. What is Criteria in Hibernate ?Hibernate
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Ans. Criteria is a simplified API for retrieving entities by composing Criterion objects.

For example - session.createCriteria(Employee.class).add( Restrictions.like("name", "A%") ).list();

will return all employee objects having name starting with A.

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 Q29. Which version control system you are using in your current project ?Tools
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Ans. We are using SVN and Git Hub.

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  Q30. Explain Application / Server architecture being used in your project ?

or

Explain your project architecture ?
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Ans. We are using cluster of Web servers and Application servers. Load Balancer is used to manage the load between them. Down the layer we have middleware server and then DB server to access database.

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Frequently asked.
 Q31. What should a class do if its implementing an interface ?Core Java

Ans. It should either implement all interface methods or declare unimplemented methods as abstract.

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 Q32. What is a static variable in Java ?Core Java2016-07-19 11:20:35

Ans. It is a class level variable that is shared among the objects of that class.

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 Q33. What are the disadvantages of multithreading ?Core Java2016-10-11 08:47:41

Ans. 1. Switching Overheads - Even though multi threading aims at improving performance by reducing the wait time and hence improving overall throughput, there is a cost of switching resources between threads and sometime this cost can surpass the benefits if there isnt much wait for IO or external communication.

2. Debugging is hard with multi threaded code.

3. Deadlock - Execution of multi threaded code many a times lead to deadlock due to shared resources.

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 Q34. What is the difference between Controller and Task Command ?IBM WCS2016-10-12 00:52:48

Ans. Controller Command is the command that gets called upon a request, just like We have actions in struts and controller in Spring. Task is a step in this bigger process. Task command are the commands that perform specific task for a controller command, like service classes in other frameworks. In order to complete the request, a controller command may invoke multiple task commands.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     IBM Websphere Commerce   IBM WCS  WCS commands


Frequently asked Design Pattern interview question.
 Q35. What is a prototype design pattern ?Design2016-11-04 08:06:01

Ans. The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern. It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. Prototype is used when we need duplicate copies of objects.

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 Q36. What is difference between Product and Item ?IBM WCS2016-11-14 16:53:10

Ans. Item is a sale-able merchandise where as Product is a group of sale-able merchandise which share certain attributes. For example - Cell phone is a product whereas Samsung Galaxy S2 - White is an item.

Quantity is always attached to SKU ( Stock keeping unit ) or items. Product quantity has no relevance in terms of identify the current stock or reorder condition.

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 Q37. Write a Java Program to check Armstrong Number ?Core Java2016-11-24 08:40:05

Ans. http://www.programmingsimplified.com/java/source-code/java-program-armstrong-number

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 Q38. Explain Agile Software Development Methodology ?Process2016-11-30 16:00:02

Ans. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development

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 Q39. How Promotions are created and stored in WCS ?IBM WCS2016-12-07 12:59:56

Ans. Promotions are created either using Management Center or Accelerator. PX_PROMOTION table is used to store Promotions. Complete Promotion is stored as an XML string within XMLPARAM column. Other tables which are used to store promotion related information are -

CATENTCALCD
CALCODE
CLCDPROMO

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 Q40. What is purchase condition and reward in promotions ?IBM WCS2016-12-28 22:51:04

Ans. Purchase condition is the condition that must be fulfilled before a promotion is applied and Reward is the benefit that is passed to customer.

For Example - If promotion is "Buy 2 Quantity of X, Get Y Free" , Purchase condition is inclusion of 2 qty of X in Cart. Reward in this case would be 1 qty of Y.

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