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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Design' - 185 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback ) and Epam Systems
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   string comparison   string   object class   ==    equals   object equality  operator   == vs equals   equals vs ==     Asked in 293 Companies      basic        frequent

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q2. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   classes   abstract class   interfaces   abstract class vs interface   abstract classes vs interfaces     Asked in 82 Companies      basic        frequent


Very frequently asked.Usually among first few questions.
  Q3. What is MVC ? Design
Ans. MVC is a Design Pattern that facilititates loose coupling by segregating responsibilities in a Web application

1. Controller receives the requests and handles overall control of the request
2. Model holds majority of the Business logic, and
3. View comprise of the view objects and GUI component

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q4. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design
Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     design patterns   ioc ( Inversion of Control )  dependency injection     Asked in 83 Companies      intermediate        frequent


 Q5. Let's suppose we have an to destroy objects, Design a program to implement garbage collection ?Design
Ans. Step 1 - We can create a Registry Class having Map of all created objects as key and References list as value.

Step 2 - Whenever we create an object , we should update the Registry in the constructor to add the new object.

Step 3 - Whenever we assign a new reference to the object , we need to update the entry in Map. Similarly if the reference get's removed ( end of scope etc ), we need to remove the entry of reference from the list.

Step 4 - We can have threaded code to monitor the Map to see if any object looses all it's references and should call the method to destroy object and clean the memory.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     garbage collection


 Q6. What are the Wrapper classes available for primitive types ?Core Java
Ans. boolean - java.lang.Boolean
byte - java.lang.Byte
char - java.lang.Character
double - java.lang.Double
float - java.lang.Float
int - java.lang.Integer
long - java.lang.Long
short - java.lang.Short
void - java.lang.Void

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   java5   data types   wrapper classes   adapter design pattern        rare


  Q7. What is the use of Transient Keyword ?Core Java
Ans. It in Java is used to indicate that a field should not be serialized.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   oops   serialization   transient   java keywords     Asked in 39 Companies      intermediate        frequent

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 Q8. Difference between Factory and Abstract Factory Design Pattern ?Design
Ans. Factory Pattern deals with creation of objects delegated to a separate factory class whereas Abstract Factory patterns works around a super-factory which creates other factories.

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 Q9. Difference between Factory and Builder Design Pattern ?Design
Ans. Builder pattern is the extension of Factory pattern wherein the Builder class builds a complex object in multiple steps.

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 Q10. If you are given a choice to implement the code to either Insert a Record or Update if already exist, Which approach will you follow ?

1. Insert into the DB Table. If exception occurs, update the existing record.
2. Check if the record exists and update it if it exists, If not insert a new record.
Solution
Ans. In first case, there would be 2 DB calls in worst case and 1 in best case. In 2nd approach there will be always 2 DB calls.

Decision on the approach should depend on the following considerations -

1. How costly is the call to DB ? Are we using indices , hibernate etc

If calls to DB are costly , 1st approach should be the choice.

2. Exception Book keeping load upon exception.

The benefit of saving 1st call in approach 1 should be bigger than the Book keeping for the exception.

3. Probability of the exception in first apparoach.

If the DB Table is almost empty, it makes sense to follow Approach 1 as majority of the 1st calls will pass through without exception.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     database   insert-update   db exceution plan   db strategy   design   architecture   technical lead


 Q11. In which cases , moving methods to utility class could be useful ?Core Java
Ans. It could be worthy to move a method to util class if the method needs to be shared, doesn't require polymorphic behavior and need not be overridden in special cases.

Don't belong to one group through is-a relationship ( You can share through parent class method )

Don't implement a specific interface ( java 8 default methods )

Doesn't involve complex computing as you will be loosing the benefit of object state with just static method.

Doesn't require polymorphic behavior as static methods don't participate in runtime polymorphism.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     utility classes   util classes   static methods   application design        rare


  Q12. What is coupling and Cohesion ?Design
Ans. Coupling is the degree of interdependence between software modules, a measure of how closely connected two modules are or the strength of the relationships between modules.

Cohesion refers to the degree to which the elements of a module belong together. Cohesion measures the strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given module.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     coupling  cohesion     Asked in 10 Companies        frequent


 Q13. Design a Data Structure for a full text Search ?Design
 This question was recently asked at 'Myntra'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     Full Text Search  Data Structure     Asked in 1 Companies      expert


 Q14. What are the benefits of Dependency Injection or IOC ?Design
Ans. Central place for configuring dependencies.

No need to create object, container manage all this By using Run time polymorphism and association.

Facilities development of framework / libraries by injecting implementation classes in the implementation code.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     dependency injection  IOC  inversion of control


 Q15. If you need to consume messages from the queue faster, which approach will you recommend - batching or concurrency ?Design
Ans. Each has it's own advantages

Batching requires less resources but may result in loosing whole batch in case of failure whereas concurrency even though is little more expensive in terms of resources but would result in minimal loss in case of failure.

In case messages are to be consumed in a particular order, batching them in that order and then consuming them makes better sense.

if incoming messages are not continuous , it makes more sense to do concurrency as we need not wait for all messages to form a batch and flush. Though time sensitivity can be added but that would add unnecessary complexity.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     concurrency vs batching   concurrency  multithreading  batch


 Q16. What are the disadvantages of Design Patterns ?Design Pattern
Ans. 1. Design patterns are abstraction heavy and hence sometimes creates memory and performance overheads.

2. Sometimes they create unnecessary complexity without much added advantage.

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 Q17. What Design pattern Wrapper Classes implement ?Design
Ans. Adapter.

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 Q18. Difference between Proxy and Adapter ?Design
Ans. Adapter object has a different input than the real subject whereas Proxy object has the same input as the real subject. Proxy object is such that it should be placed as it is in place of the real subject.

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 Q19. Difference between Adapter and Facade ?Design
Ans. The Difference between these patterns in only the intent. Adapter is used because the objects in current form cannot communicate where as in Facade , though the objects can communicate , A Facade object is placed between the client and subject to simplify the interface.

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 Q20. Difference between Builder and Composite ?
Ans. Builder is a creational Design Pattern whereas Composite is a structural design pattern. Composite creates Parent - Child relations between your objects while Builder is used to create group of objects of predefined types.

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 Q21. Example of Chain of Responsibility Design Pattern ?
Ans. Exception Handling Throw mechanism.

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 Q22. Example of Observer Design Pattern ?
Ans. Listeners.

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 Q23. Difference between Factory and Strategy Design Pattern ?Design
Ans. Factory is a creational design pattern whereas Strategy is behavioral design pattern. Factory revolves around the creation of object at runtime whereas Strategy or Policy revolves around the decision at runtime.

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 Q24. What are different types of dependency injections ?Design
Ans. Setter injection
Constructor injection
Interface injection
Look-up method/method injection

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 Q25. What is the difference between these two approaches of creating singleton Class ?

//Double Checked Locking Code
public static Singleton createInstance() {
   if(singleton == null){
      synchronized(Singleton.class) {
         if(singleton == null) {
            singleton = new Singleton();
         }
      }
   }
   return singleton;
}

//Single checked locking code
public static Singleton createInstance() {
   synchronized(Singleton.class) {
      if(singleton == null) {
         singleton = new Singleton();
      }
   }
   return singleton;
}
Design
Ans. In First Case , Lock for the synchronized block will be received only if singleton == null whereas in second case every thread will acquire the lock before executing the code.
The problem of synchronization with singleton will only happen when the object has not be instantiated. Once instantiated , the check singleton == null will always generate true and the same object will be returned and hence no problem. First condition will make sure that synchronized access ( acquiring locks ) will only take place if the object has not been created so far.

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Very Frequently asked to Senior Software Engineers or Developers.
  Q26. Describe some of the Design Patterns you have used ?Design
Ans. [Open Ended Answer]

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     design patterns     Asked in 17 Companies      intermediate        frequent


 Q27. How would you do an object oriented design on animals in a zoo ?Design
 This question was recently asked at 'Booking.com,InterContinental Hotels,Caissa,Workday'.This question is still unanswered. Can you please provide an answer.


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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve          Asked in 4 Companies


 Q28. Why it's a good practice to expose member elements through getter methods ?Design
Ans. Encapsulation and Polymorphism.

We need methods to access variables in a polymorphic way as overriding only happens with methods and not with variables. Moreover getter provides a way to minimally open the access window for the object and hence provides better encapsulation. To add to those, we can have validation in the getter method before returning elements.

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 Q29. What are some uses of interceptors ?Java EE
Ans. Authentication / Authorization
URL forwarding
Auditing / Logging
Localization

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     interceptors  interceptor design pattern


 Q30. What is abstraction ?Design
Ans. Abstraction is a process of hiding the implementation details and describing only the functionality to the user.

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