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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Program' - 63 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced developers. Among the first few questions in many interviews.
  Q1. What are the difference between composition and inheritance in Java?Core Java
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Ans. Composition - has-a relationship between objects.
Inheritance - is-a relationship between classes.

Composition - Composing object holds a reference to composed objects and hence relationship is loosely bound.
Inheritance - Derived object carries the base class definition in itself and hence its tightly bound.

Composition - Used in Dependency Injection
Inheritance - Used in Runtime Polymorphism

Composition - Single class objects can be composed within multiple classes.
Inheritance - Single class can only inherit 1 Class.

Composition - Its the relationship between objects.
Inheritance - Its the relationship between classes.

  Sample Code for inheritance

  Sample Code for composition

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 Q2. What are points to consider in terms of access modifier when we are overriding any method?Core Java
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Ans. 1. Overriding method can not be more restrictive than the overridden method.

reason : in case of polymorphism , at object creation jvm look for actual runtime object. jvm does not look for reference type and while calling methods it look for overridden method.

If by means subclass were allowed to change the access modifier on the overriding method, then suddenly at runtime when the JVM invokes the true objects version of the method rather than the reference types version then it will be problematic

2. In case of subclass and superclass define in different package, we can override only those method which have public or protected access.

3. We can not override any private method because private methods can not be inherited and if method can not be inherited then method can not be overridden.

  Sample Code for Overriding

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q3. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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 Q4. Why every object constructor automatically call super() in Object before its own constructors?Core Java
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Ans. Derived object carries the body of its class as well as the body of the parent class. Its body ( member elements ) is initialized using its own class constructor whereas the body ( member elements ) carried from the parent class are initialized using super class constructor. So In order to initialize the elements of the parent class before its own elements are even initialized, super is called.

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q5. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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 Q6. Can you give a real world example of Encapsulation and Abstraction ?Core Java2016-05-29 13:47:31

Ans. Car Engine is an example of encapsulation and abstraction. You ignite the car using an interface called starter and least bothered about how the tire actually moves (This is abstraction). The engine encapsulates the complete process to itself only and doesn't allow you to start the other components like the radiator etc ( this is excapsulation )

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 Q7. Difference between C++ and Java ?Core Java
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Ans. Java does not support pointers.

Java does not support multiple inheritances.

Java does not support destructors but rather adds a finalize() method. Finalize methods are invoked by the garbage collector prior to reclaiming the memory occupied by the object, which has the finalize() method.

Java does not include structures or unions because the traditional data structures are implemented as an object oriented framework.

C++ compiles to machine language , when Java compiles to byte code .

In C++ the programmer needs to worry about freeing the allocated memory , where in Java the Garbage Collector takes care of the the unneeded / unused variables.

Java is platform independent language but c++ is depends upon operating system.

Java uses compiler and interpreter both and in c++ their is only compiler.

C++ supports operator overloading whereas Java doesn't.

Internet support is built-in Java but not in C++. However c++ has support for socket programming which can be used.

Java does not support header file, include library files just like C++ .Java use import to include different Classes and methods.

There is no goto statement in Java.

There is no scope resolution operator :: in Java. It has . using which we can qualify classes with the namespace they came from.

Java is pass by value whereas C++ is both pass by value and pass by reference.

Java Enums are objects instead of int values in C++

C++ programs runs as native executable machine code for the target and hence more near to hardware whereas Java program runs in a virtual machine.

C++ was designed mainly for systems programming, extending the C programming language whereas Java was created initially to support network computing.

C++ allows low-level addressing of data. You can manipulate machine addresses to look at anything you want. Java access is controlled.

C++ has several addressing operators . * & -> where Java has only one: the .

We can create our own package in Java(set of classes) but not in c and c++.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q8. Difference between Composition and Inheritance ?Core Java
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Ans. Inheritance means a object inheriting reusable properties of the base class. Compositions means that an abject holds other objects.

In Inheritance there is only one object in memory ( derived object ) whereas in Composition , parent object holds references of all composed objects.

From Design perspective - Inheritance is "is a" relationship among objects whereas Composition is "has a" relationship among objects.

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 Q9. How compiler handles the exceptions in overriding ?Core Java
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Ans. 1)The overriding methods can throw any runtime Exception , here in the case of runtime exception overriding method (subclass method) should not worry about exception being thrown by superclass method.

2)If superclass method does not throw any exception then while overriding, the subclass method can not throw any new checked exception but it can throw any runtime exception

3) Different exceptions in java follow some hierarchy tree(inheritance). In this case , if superclass method throws any checked exception , then while overriding the method in subclass we can not throw any new checked exception or any checked exception which are higher in hierarchy than the exception thrown in superclass method

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 Q10. Why Java is not considered pure OOP's language ?Core Java

Ans. There are 2 reasons for it.

1. Usage of Primitive types - Though Java provides classes for the primitive data types but as the usage of primitives is permissible, its considered unpure OOP's language.

2. Usage of Static members - Static members belong to the class and not objects and hence not considered fit for pure OOP's programming.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q11. Which of the following is tightly bound ? Inheritance or Composition ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Inheritance.

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 Q12. What is race condition ?Operating System
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Ans. A source of possible errors in parallel programming, where one thread can cause an error in another thread by changing some aspect of the state of the program that the second thread is depending on (such as the value of variable).

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 Q13. What are the features of encapsulation ?Core Java
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Ans. Combine the data of our application and its manipulation at one place.

Encapsulation Allow the state of an object to be accessed and modified through behaviors.

Reduce the coupling of modules and increase the cohesion inside them.

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 Q14. How is Abstraction implemented in Java ?Core Java
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Ans. Abstraction is provided in Java by following ways -

Coding to the ( Interfaces / Abstract Classes ) or contracts

By Encapsulating details within classes and exposing the minimal Door ( few public methods )

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 Q15. If everything is an object , Cant we declare every object as

Object obj = new String();
Core Java2016-12-02 14:45:05

Ans. Yes, we can do that. Compiler wont complain. But using object reference we can only access methods which have been defined for object class i.e clone(), equals(), hashCode(), toString() etc.

We cannot access methods defined in String class or in any class in hierarchy between String and Object.

For example - we cannot do obj.append("abc") as it will now give compile time error.

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 Q16. Can we have multiple inheritance in java using abstract class ?Core Java2018-07-04 16:17:49

Ans. No

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 Q17. Does use of Final class enforces composition over Inheritance in Java ? Core Java2018-07-16 06:49:53

Ans. Yes, to a certain extent. But the objective for Final class could be beyond just enforcing composition as certain classes might have been created without inheritance or composition in mind.

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 Q18. What could be the reasons for restricting inheritance using final class ?Core Java2018-07-16 06:52:00

Ans. 1. Enforcing composition over inheritance
2. Restricting overriding of certain methods
3. Final methods are faster than regular instance methods
4. Enforcing Immutability

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 Q19. What is a Listener ?Design
Anonymous
Ans. In GUI programming, an object that can be registered to be notified when events of some given type occur. The object is said to listener? for the events.

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 Q20. Define Network Programming?
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Ans. It refers to writing programs that execute across multiple devices (computers), in which the devices are all connected to each other using a network.

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 Q21. What are the advantages and Disadvantages of Sockets ?
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Ans. Sockets are flexible and sufficient. Efficient socket based programming can be easily implemented for general communications. It cause low network traffic.

Socket based communications allows only to send packets of raw data between applications. Both the client-side and server-side have to provide mechanisms to make the data useful in any way.

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 Q22. Difference between TCP and UDP ?
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Ans. http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/key-differences-between-tcp-and-udp-protocols/

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 Q23. Can we extend an Enum ?Core Java
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Ans. No. Enums are final by design.

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 Q24. Is this Polymorphism ?

Map<String, List<String>> inventoryManagerCountMap = new HashMap<String, ArrayList<String>>();
Core Java
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Ans. No. This will result in compilation error as Polymorphism cannot be performed on Object types.

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 Q25. What are stateless objects ? How are they different from immutable objects ? Which of these two is thread safe ?Object Oriented Programming
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Ans. Stateless objects are the objects without instance fields (instance variables). The class may have compile time constants i.e static final fields.Immutable objects are the objects which have state but the state cannot be changed after initialization. Both are Thread safe.

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 Q26. What are advantages of stateless and / or immutable objects ?Object Oriented Programming
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Ans. They can be shared across multiple threads as they are thread safe.

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 Q27. Have you ever had any conflict with the team member (like disagreement on some design decision ) and How you reacted to it ? General2016-11-30 15:55:39

Ans. [Open Ended Answer]

This is a very sensitive question and should be dealt with caution. Just simply saying that you never had any disagreement will present you as dumb team member. Showing your self as too aggressive in such decisions will present you as a trouble maker. You should present a situation where you had an argument / disagreement but eventually you and your team mates mutually found a way out of it.

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Must know at all levels. Among Top 10 frequently asked questions in Java. Very frequently asked to fresh graduates or less experienced professionals.
  Q28. What is Inheritance ?Core Java

Ans. Its a facility for code reuse and independent extension wherein a derived class inherits the properties of parent class.

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 Q29. Find the repeating number using O(n) time and constant space.Algorithm

Ans. http://www.geeksforgeeks.org/find-duplicates-in-on-time-and-constant-extra-space/

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 Q30. How is static and dynamic polymorphism achieved in Java ?Core Java

Ans. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

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  Q31. How is multiple inheritance implemented in Java ?Core Java

Ans. There was no multiple inheritance in java before version 8 as implementing multiple interfaces cannot be termed as inheritance.

With Java 8 , came the concept of default methods wherein the class implementing the interface carries the default implementation from the interface and hence facilitating multiple inheritance.

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 Q32. What is multilevel inheritance ?Core Java2016-06-23 13:52:50

Ans. Multi Level Inheritance is multi level hierarchy of classes. Here is the example - http://www.buggybread.com/2015/09/java-se-class-diagram-classes-that_603.html

Class RoleList extends ArrayList which in turn extends AbstractList which in turn extends AbstractCollection.

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 Q33. Can I run a java program without creating any class ?2016-07-18 11:09:58

Ans. No, It requires creation of atleast one Class. Creating an object of that class is not compulsory as we can write all our logic within main method which is static.

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 Q34. Does default methods introduce multiple inheritance and the Diamond problem in Java 8 ?Core Java2016-07-20 17:16:28

Ans. Default methods results in multiple inheritance of behavior and not of state. In case we try to implement multiple interfaces with default method having same name and signature, and don't override it in implementation class, it will throw an error.

For example -

interface MyInterface {
public void default myMethod(){
}
}

interface MyInterface2 {
public void default myMethod(){
}
}

class MyClass implements MyInterface,MyInterface2 {
}

This code will compilation error "Duplicate Default Method"

if we specify the definition of myMethod() in myClass, compiler won't complain and there is no conflict and MyClass can use overridden definition. But if we don't override myMethod() in MyClass, Java would be in conflict as to what definition should be carried to MyClass and hence throws compilation error.

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 Q35. Can we access private members of the parent class ? i.e Are private members of the class visible in the derived class ?Core Java2016-08-04 09:24:34

Ans. No, If both Parent and Derived are outer classes.

public class Vehicle {
private static String manufacturingDate = "2016";
}

public class Car extends Vehicle{
public static void main(String args[]){
System.out.println(manufacturingDate); // error - The field Vehicle.manufacturingDate is not visible
}
}

Yes, If derived is the inner class of Parent.

public class Vehicle {
private static String manufacturingDate = "2016";
static public class Car extends Vehicle{
public static void main(String args[]){
System.out.println(manufacturingDate); // no problem
}
}
}

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 Q36. Difference between multiple and multi level inheritance ?Core Java2016-08-13 07:51:02

Ans. Multiple Inheritance refers to the concept of a class inheriting multiple classes. Example - Class C extends Class A ,Class B. This is not allowed in Java.

Multilevel Inheritance refers to the concept of Inheritance in a chain. Example - Class B extends Class A, Class C extends Class B. This is permitted in Java.

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 Q37. Write a Java Program to check Armstrong Number ?Core Java2016-11-24 08:40:05

Ans. http://www.programmingsimplified.com/java/source-code/java-program-armstrong-number

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 Q38. Write a Program to print the positive and negative numbers separetlyCore Java2016-12-18 16:53:56

Ans. int[] arr = {1,-1,2,-3,3,-4,4,5,6,-5,-6,-7,-8,8,9,-9};
List positiveNumbers = new ArrayList<>();
List negativeNumbers = new ArrayList<>();
for(int i = 0; i < arr.length(); i ){
if(I < 0){
negativeNumbers.add(i);
} else {
positiveNumbers.add(i);
}
}

System.out.println("Positive Numbers:" + positiveNumbers);
System.out.println("Negative Numbers:" + negativeNumbers);

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  Q39. Why java doesn't support multiple Inheritance ?

or

Explain Java Diamond Problem.
Core Java2017-01-09 11:45:34

Ans. class A {
void test() {
System.out.println("test() method");
}
}

class B {
void test() {
System.out.println("test() method");
}
}

Suppose if Java allows multiple inheritance like this,

class C extends A, B {
}

A and B test() methods are inheriting to C class.

So which test() method C class will take? As A & B class test() methods are different , So here we would Facing Ambiguity.

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 Q40. Is exit a keyword in Java ?Core Java2017-01-12 11:21:28

Ans. No exit is a method to exit execution of a program.

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