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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Code' - 169 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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  Q3. Which are the different segments of memory ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. Stack Segment - Contains primitives, Class / Interface names and references.

2. Heap Segment - Contains all created objects in runtime, objects only plus their object attributes (instance variables), Static variables are also stored in heap.

3. Code Segment - The segment where the actual compiled Java bytecodes resides when loaded

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  Q4. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protected
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Frequently asked in all types of companies especially Indian Services companies. Frequently asked in CTS (Based on 2 feedback)
  Q5. What is the use of hashcode in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc. The value received from hashcode() is used as bucket number for storing elements. This bucket number is the address of the element inside the set/map. when you do contains() then it will take the hashcode of the element, then look for the bucket where hashcode points to and if more than 1 element is found in the same bucket (multiple objects can have the same hashcode) then it uses the equals() method to evaluate if object are equal, and then decide if contain() is true or false, or decide if element could be added in the set or not.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q6. What is a final method ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Its a method which cannot be overridden. Compiler throws an error if we try to override a method which has been declared final in the parent class.

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 Q7. What do you look for when you do code review ?Core Java2016-12-28 13:59:38

Ans. Modularity - First sign of good code is whether it has been segregated into methods and classes appropriately. I dont mind it in excess because I believe that is forward looking strategy as applications tends to expand and eventually become hard to read.

Self Explanatory - Variables and methods should be named in a way that the code should be self explanatory even without comments. Use of Constant variables to explain use of literal.

Proper Code Reuse - If there is anything being reused , it should be moved to parent classes / methods.

Proper composition calls - Composed hierarchy should not be access in just single line. One or two levels is ok but having multiple levels make it hard to read and debug.

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 Q8. What will be the output of following code ?

public static void main(String[] args){
String name = null;
File file = new File("/folder", name);
System.out.print(file.exists());
}
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. NullPointerException

at line: "File file = new File("/folder", name);"

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q9. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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 Q10. There are two objects a and b with same hashcode. I am inserting these two objects inside a hashmap.

hMap.put(a,a);
hMap.put(b,b);

where a.hashCode()==b.hashCode()

Now tell me how many objects will be there inside the hashmap?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. There can be two different elements with the same hashcode. When two elements have the same hashcode then Java uses the equals to further differentation. So there can be one or two objects depending on the content of the objects.

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 Q11. How to find whether a given integer is odd or even without use of modulus operator in java?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. public static void main(String ar[])
{
int n=5;
if((n/2)*2==n)
{
System.out.println("Even Number ");
}
else
{
System.out.println("Odd Number ");
}
}

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 Q12. Which of the following Java feature promotes Code Re usability ?

a. Abstraction
b. Encapsulation
c. Inheritance
d. Polymorphism
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Inheritance

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This question can be asked in different variants like performace improvement of an application, improving performance for DB communication etc.
 Q13. What are the ways in which execution time of the code can be improved ?Solution2016-05-29 09:42:39

Ans. This depends on entirely upon the code type. For example

1.If its just logic, we can try it to short circuit or put the if / switch case with maximum probability in the beginning.

2. Can use faster data structures, for eg - random retrieval instead of sequence / iterator

3. Working with primitive types or even bytes instead of Objects, even though it may result in marginal improvement.

4. If its service call, then service call with bulk load can help

5. If DB Operation, then with use of Indices , Views or using ORM , cache etc.


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 Q14. How many bits are used to represent Unicode, ASCII, UTF-16, and UTF-8 characters?
Anonymous
Ans. Unicode requires 16 bits and ASCII require 7 bits. Although the ASCII character set uses only 7 bits, it is usually represented as 8 bits. UTF-8 represents characters using 8, 16, and 18 bit patterns. UTF-16 uses 16-bit and larger bit patterns.

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Very frequently asked. Usually asked with questions related to String.
  Q15. What is an Immutable Object ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Object that can't be changed after instantiation.

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 Q16. How Java provide high Performance ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Java uses Just-In-Time compiler to enable high performance. Just-In-Time compiler is a program that turns Java bytecode into instructions that can be sent directly to the processor.

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  Q17. Write a method to check if input String is Palindrome?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. private static boolean isPalindrome(String str) {

if (str == null)
return false;

StringBuilder strBuilder = new StringBuilder(str);

strBuilder.reverse();

return strBuilder.toString().equals(str);

}

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 Q18. Write a method that will remove given character from the String?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans.
private static String removeChar(String str, char c) {    
if (str == null)
return null;

return str.replaceAll(Character.toString(c), "");
}


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 Q19. Why String is popular HashMap key in Java?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Since String is immutable, its hashcode is cached at the time of creation and it doesnt need to be calculated again. This makes it a great candidate for key in a Map and its processing is fast than other HashMap key objects. This is why String is mostly used Object as HashMap keys.

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 Q20. Will the following program display ""Buggy Bread"" ?

class Test{
   static void display(){
      System.out.println(""Buggy Bread"");
   }
}

class Demo{
   public static void main(String... args){
      Test t = null;
      t.display();
   }
}
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans.  Yes. static method is not accessed by the instance of class. Either you call it by the class name or the reference.

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Very frequently asked in HCL Tech ( Based of 4 inputs )
  Q21. Write a program to reverse a string iteratively and recursively ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Using String method -

new StringBuffer(str).reverse().toString();

Iterative -

public static String getReverseString(String str){
StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer(str.length);
for(int counter=str.length -1 ; counter>=0;counter--){
strBuffer.append(str.charAt(counter));
}
return strBuffer;
}

Recursive -

public static String getReverseString(String str){
if(str.length <= 1){
return str;
}
return (getReverseString(str.subString(1)) + str.charAt(0);
}

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 Q22. What will be the output of following Code ?

class BuggyBread {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      String s2 = "I am unique!";
      String s5 = "I am unique!";

      System.out.println(s2 == s5);
   }
}
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. true, due to String Pool, both will point to a same String object.

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 Q23. What will be the output of following code ?
class BuggyBread2 {       
   private static int counter = 0;     
   void BuggyBread2() {        
      counter = 5;    
   }     
   
   BuggyBread2(int x){
      counter = x;    
   }        

   public static void main(String[] args) {        
      BuggyBread2 bg = new BuggyBread2();        
      System.out.println(counter);    
   } 
}
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans.  Compile time error as it won't find the constructor matching BuggyBread2(). 
Compiler won't provide default no argument constructor as programmer has already defined one constructor. 
Compiler will treat user defined BuggyBread2() as a method, as return type ( void ) has been specified for that. 

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 Q24. What will be the output of following code ?

public static void main(String[] args){
String parent = null;
File file = new File(parent, "myfile.txt");
try {
file.createNewFile();
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. It will create the file myfile.txt in the current directory.

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 Q25. What will be the output of this code ?

Set mySet = new HashSet();
mySet.add("4567");
mySet.add("5678");
mySet.add("6789");
for(String s: mySet){
System.out.println(s);
}
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. It will print 4567,5678 and 6789 but Order cannot be predicted.

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 Q26. What will be the output of this code ?

Set mySet = new HashSet();
mySet.add("4567");
mySet.add("5678");
mySet.add("6789");
System.out.println(s.get(0));
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. This will give compile time error as we cannot retrieve the element from a specified index using Set. Set doesn't maintain elements in any order.

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 Q27. Write a program to print all even numbers first and then all odd numbers till 100. For example the output should be
2
4
6
8
...... 100
and then
1
3
5
7
...... 99

using only 1 for loop ? Is it possible with just one loop ?
Core Java2017-01-27 18:20:39

Ans. Yes , It can be done using single for loop

public class BuggyBread{
public static void main (String args[]) {
   int x = 50;
   for(int i=1;i <= 100;i++){
      if(i<=50){
         System.out.println(i*2);
      } else {
         System.out.println(i-x);
         x = x - 1;
      }
   }
}
}

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 Q28. Write an algorithm / Java Program to show duplicates in an array of n elements?Algorithm2017-01-19 15:37:26

Ans. int duplicateArray[] = { 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9}
Set unique = new HashSet();
for (int i = 0; i < duplicateArray.length; i) {
if (unique.contains(duplicateArray[i])) {
System.out.println(duplicateArray[i]);
} else {
unique.add(duplicateArray[i]);
}
}

Complexity O(n) = nHashSet contains and add has O(n) = 1

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 Q29. Find different combination of given String and trace the output

Core Java2018-01-21 17:14:13

Ans. private void permutation(String prefix, String sufix)
{
int ln = sufix.length();
if(ln == 0) {
System.out.println(prefix);
} else {
IntStream.range(0, ln).forEach(i->permutation(prefix sufix.charAt(i), sufix.substring(0,i) sufix.substring(i 1, ln)));
}
}

call:permutation("", "abcdef");

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 Q30. Write code to create a folder if it doesn't exist.Core Java2018-07-19 20:44:45

Ans. File folder = new File(path);
      
if(!folder.exists()){
try {
folder.mkdir();
            
} catch (Exception e) {}
}

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 Q31. What is meant by "unreachable code" ? Can you write a code segment explaining this ?Core Java2018-07-23 15:37:03

Ans. Unreachable code is a code segment that can never be executed in any case. For example -

int x = 5;
return;
System.out.println(x);

In this code , 2nd line will return the control out of the method and hence 3rd line will never get executed and hence is unreachable code. This will be caught at compile time only.

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 Q32. Which memory segment loads the java code ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Code segment.

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 Q33. What is unicode ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. A way of encoding characters as binary numbers. The Unicode character set includes
characters used in many languages, not just English. Unicode is the character set that is
used internally by Java.

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 Q34. Should good code be self-documenting, or is it the responsibility of the developer to document it?Process
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Open ended Questions.

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 Q35. Why is Java considered Portable Language ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Java is a portable-language because without any modification we can use Java byte-code in any platform(which supports Java). So this byte-code is portable and we can use in any other major platforms.

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 Q36. Write a program to print the index of the first non repeated character in a java stringCore Java2017-01-27 18:30:21

Ans. public class BuggyBread1{
public static void main (String args[]) {
   String str = "hheello world";
   char[] charArray = str.toCharArray();
   char selectedChar = 'a';
   for(char char1: charArray){
      if(!str.contains(Character.toString(char1).concat(Character.toString(char1)))){
         selectedChar = char1;
         break;
      }
   }
   System.out.println(str.indexOf(Character.toString(selectedChar)));
}
}

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 Q37. public class a {
   public static void main(String args[]){
      final String s1=""job"";
      final String s2=""seeker"";
      String s3=s1.concat(s2);
      String s4=""jobseeker"";
      System.out.println(s3==s4); // Output 1
      System.out.println(s3.hashCode()==s4.hashCode()); Output 2
   }
}

What will be the Output 1 and Output 2 ?
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. S3 and S4 are pointing to different memory location and hence Output 1 will be false.

Hash code is generated to be used as hash key in some of the collections in Java and is calculated using string characters and its length. As they both are same string literals, and hence their hashcode is same.Output 2 will be true.

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  Q38. What is the use of HashCode in objects ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc.

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 Q39. Write a Program to add 1-100, 101-200, 201-300 in different threads and then sum the numbers ?Core Java2016-11-30 20:51:58

Ans. public class TotalUsingThreads extends Thread{
   
   private static List<TotalUsingThreads> collector = new ArrayList<TotalUsingThreads>();
   
   private int startFrom = 0;
   
   private Integer threadTotal = null;
   
   Test(int startFrom){
      this.startFrom = startFrom;
   }
   
   
   public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException{
      int totalSum = 0;
      
      // Create all the threads and set the count starting point for all of them
      for(int count=0;count<10;count++){
         TotalUsingThreads newThread = new TotalUsingThreads(count*100);
         newThread.start();
         collector.add(newThread);
      }
      
      boolean allCollected = false;
      
      
      // Make sure that all thread totals are collected and all threads have completed their tasks
      while(!allCollected){
         for(int count=0;count<10;count++){
            if(collector.get(count).threadTotal == null){
               Thread.sleep(100);
               break;
            }
         }
         allCollected = true;
      }
      
      // sum totals of all threads
      for(int count=0;count<10;count++){
         totalSum += collector.get(count).threadTotal;
      }
      
      System.out.println(totalSum);
      
      
   }
   
   public void run(){
      threadTotal = 0;
      for(int count=startFrom;count<startFrom+100;count++){
       threadTotal += count;   
      }
   }
}

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 Q40. What will be the output of the following code ?

String s1 = "Buggy Bread";
String s2 = "Buggy Bread";
if(s1 == s2)
   System.out.println("equal 1");
String n1 = new String("Buggy Bread");
String n2 = new String("Buggy Bread");
if(n1 == n2)
   System.out.println("equal 2");
Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. equal 1

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