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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Solution' - 83 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q3. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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Very frequently asked to Fresh graduates.
  Q4. What is the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1.Abstraction solves the problem at design level while encapsulation solves the problem at implementation level

2.Abstraction is used for hiding the unwanted data and giving relevant data. while Encapsulation means hiding the code and data into a single unit to protect the data from outside world.

3. Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it while Encapsulation means hiding the internal details or mechanics of how an object does something.

4.For example: Outer Look of a Television, like it has a display screen and channel buttons to change channel it explains Abstraction but Inner Implementation detail of a Television how CRT and Display Screen are connect with each other using different circuits , it explains Encapsulation.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies. Frequently asked in HCL Technologies, TCS and Accenture.
  Q5. What is the difference between final, finally and finalize() ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. final - constant variable, objects cannot be de-referenced, restricting method overriding, restricting class sub classing.

finally - handles exception. The finally block is optional and provides a mechanism to clean up regardless of what happens within the try block. Use the finally block to close files or to release other system resources like database connections, statements etc.

finalize() - method helps in garbage collection. A method that is invoked before an object is discarded by the garbage collector, allowing it to clean up its state.

  Sample Code for final

  Sample Code for finally

  Sample Code for finalize

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Frequently asked question in companies using Hibernate.
  Q6. What is Lazy Initialization in Hibernate ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. It's a feature to lazily initialize dependencies , relationship and associations from the Database. Any related references marked as @OneToMany or @ManyToMany are loaded lazily i.e when they are accessed and not when the parent is loaded.

  Sample Code for Lazy Initialization

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  Q7. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protection
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q8. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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Basic and Very Frequently asked.
  Q9. What is Polymorphism in Java ?Core Java2016-11-06 09:10:54

Ans. Polymorphism means the condition of occurring in several different forms.

Polymorphism in Java is achieved in two manners

1. Static polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at compile time and is achieved through function overloading whereas

2. Dynamic polymorphism is the polymorphic resolution identified at runtime and is achieved through method overriding.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Very frequently asked across all types of companies.
  Q10. Difference between HashMap and Hashtable?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashtable is synchronized whereas HashMap is not.HashMap allows null values whereas Hashtable doesnt allow null values.

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Frequently asked in all types of companies especially Indian Services companies. Frequently asked in CTS (Based on 2 feedback)
  Q11. What is the use of hashcode in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc. The value received from hashcode() is used as bucket number for storing elements. This bucket number is the address of the element inside the set/map. when you do contains() then it will take the hashcode of the element, then look for the bucket where hashcode points to and if more than 1 element is found in the same bucket (multiple objects can have the same hashcode) then it uses the equals() method to evaluate if object are equal, and then decide if contain() is true or false, or decide if element could be added in the set or not.

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Advanced level question frequently asked in US based companies. Recently asked in EMC and Intuit.
  Q12. Can you provide some implementation of a Dictionary having large number of words ? Solution
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Simplest implementation we can have is a List wherein we can place ordered words and hence can perform Binary Search.

Other implementation with better search performance is to use HashMap with key as first character of the word and value as a LinkedList.

Further level up, we can have linked Hashmaps like ,

hashmap {
a ( key ) -> hashmap (key-aa , value (hashmap(key-aaa,value)
b ( key ) -> hashmap (key-ba , value (hashmap(key-baa,value)
....................................................................................
z( key ) -> hashmap (key-za , value (hashmap(key-zaa,value)
}

upto n levels ( where n is the average size of the word in dictionary.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
 Q13. Why do we write public static void main ? Can we use some other syntax too for main ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. 1. public is the access modifier that makes the method accessible from anywhere, static is the keyword that makes it accessible even without creating any object, void means it doesn't return anything , String args[] is the array of argument that the method receives.

2. If we use main without the string args , it will compile correctly as Java will treat it as just another method. It wont be the method "main" which Java looks for when it looks to execute the class and hence will throw

Error: Main method not found in class , please define the main method as:
public static void main(String[] args)

3. Main is not a keyword but a special string that Java looks for while initiating the main thread.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q14. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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 Q15. Can you give a real world example of Encapsulation and Abstraction ?Core Java2016-05-29 13:47:31

Ans. Car Engine is an example of encapsulation and abstraction. You ignite the car using an interface called starter and least bothered about how the tire actually moves (This is abstraction). The engine encapsulates the complete process to itself only and doesn't allow you to start the other components like the radiator etc ( this is excapsulation )

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Advanced level question usually asked in High end product companies. Have been asked in Google and Amazon (Based on 1 Feedback)
  Q16. Describe, in general, how java's garbage collector works ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. The Java runtime environment deletes objects when it determines that they are no longer being used. This process is known as garbage collection. The Java runtime environment supports a garbage collector that periodically frees the memory used by objects that are no longer needed. The Java garbage collector is a mark-sweep garbage collector that scans Java dynamic memory areas for objects, marking those that are referenced. After all possible paths to objects are investigated, those objects that are not marked (i.e. are not referenced) are known to be garbage and are collected.

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Very Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced. Favorite question in Walk in drives. Frequently asked in Indian Services companies.
  Q17. Difference between Overloading and Overriding ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Overloading - Similar Signature but different definition , like function overloading.

Overriding - Overriding the Definition of base class in the derived class.

  Sample Code for overloading

  Sample Code for overriding

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates and less experienced.
  Q18. Difference between Composition and Inheritance ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Inheritance means a object inheriting reusable properties of the base class. Compositions means that an abject holds other objects.

In Inheritance there is only one object in memory ( derived object ) whereas in Composition , parent object holds references of all composed objects.

From Design perspective - Inheritance is "is a" relationship among objects whereas Composition is "has a" relationship among objects.

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q19. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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  Q20. Difference between Vector and ArrayList ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Vectors are synchronized whereas Array lists are not.

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Very frequently asked.Usually among first few questions.
  Q21. What is MVC ? Design
Anonymous
Ans. MVC is a Design Pattern that facilititates loose coupling by segregating responsibilities in a Web application

1. Controller receives the requests and handles overall control of the request
2. Model holds majority of the Business logic, and
3. View comprise of the view objects and GUI component

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 Q22. What things you would care about to improve the performance of Application if its identified that its DB communication that needs to be improved ?Solution
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. 1. Query Optimization ( Query Rewriting , Prepared Statements )

2. Restructuring Indexes.

3. DB Caching Tuning ( if using ORM )

4. Identifying the problems ( if any ) with the ORM Strategy ( If using ORM )

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 Q23. If you are given a choice to implement the code to either Insert a Record or Update if already exist, Which approach will you follow ?

1. Insert into the DB Table. If exception occurs, update the existing record.
2. Check if the record exists and update it if it exists, If not insert a new record.
Solution
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. In first case, there would be 2 DB calls in worst case and 1 in best case. In 2nd approach there will be always 2 DB calls.

Decision on the approach should depend on the following considerations -

1. How costly is the call to DB ? Are we using indices , hibernate etc

If calls to DB are costly , 1st approach should be the choice.

2. Exception Book keeping load upon exception.

The benefit of saving 1st call in approach 1 should be bigger than the Book keeping for the exception.

3. Probability of the exception in first apparoach.

If the DB Table is almost empty, it makes sense to follow Approach 1 as majority of the 1st calls will pass through without exception.

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Very Frequently asked.
 Q24. Explain throw, throws , try and catch in Java ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. throw is used to re throw an exception.

throws is used to declare that the method throws the respective exceptions.

try block is used to identify if the respective block has thrown any exception.

catch is used to catch the exception that has been thrown by the respective try block.

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This question can be asked in different variants like performace improvement of an application, improving performance for DB communication etc.
 Q25. What are the ways in which execution time of the code can be improved ?Solution2016-05-29 09:42:39

Ans. This depends on entirely upon the code type. For example

1.If its just logic, we can try it to short circuit or put the if / switch case with maximum probability in the beginning.

2. Can use faster data structures, for eg - random retrieval instead of sequence / iterator

3. Working with primitive types or even bytes instead of Objects, even though it may result in marginal improvement.

4. If its service call, then service call with bulk load can help

5. If DB Operation, then with use of Indices , Views or using ORM , cache etc.


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  Q26. Difference between GET and POST Requests ?Web Service2016-07-22 15:00:21

Ans. GET is supposed to get information from the server. Client sends the minimal information so that Server can respond with the response body on basis of request. For example - You want to get complete employment record for employee id 123

POST is supposed to send the information for submission. Payload or a Body is usually sent so that it can be persisted on the server. For example - Sending the complete information of an employee ( id, name , dept etc ) to the server for persisting it.

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Frequently asked to fresh graduates.
 Q27. What is ACID ?Database2016-11-04 08:09:44

Ans. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability is a set of properties of database transactions.

Atomicity means all or nothing. i.e parts of a transaction shouldn't commit if any one of them fails. Either the whole transaction should succeed or it should be complete rollback.

Consistency means that any transaction should lead database from one stabe state to another.

Isolation means that the execution of transaction results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially.

Durability means that when a transaction is committed it forms the permanent state of database.

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Frequently asked question for intermediate developers.
  Q28. What is Volatile keyword used for ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Volatile is a declaration that a variable can be accessed by multiple threads and hence shouldnt be cached.

  Sample Code for volatile

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 Q29. What is a class loader ? What are the different class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Part of JVM which is used to load classes and interfaces.

Bootstrap , Extension and System are the class loaders used by JVM.

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 Q30. How can we manage Error Messages in the web application ?Solution
Anonymous
Ans. Within message.properties file.

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 Q31. What is an Externalizable interface ?
Anonymous
Ans. Externalizable interface is used to write the state of an object into a byte stream in compressed format.

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 Q32. What are the design considerations while making a choice between using interface and abstract class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Keep it as a Abstract Class if its a "Is a" Relationsship and should do subset/all of the functionality. Keep it as Interface if its a "Should Do" relationship.

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 Q33. Can we call the garbage collector explicitly ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Yes, We can call garbage collector directly but it doesn't guarantees that the gc will start executing immediately. This gc( ) method appears in both Runtime and System classes of java.lang package.

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  Q34. What is coupling and Cohesion ?Design2016-11-15 16:16:10

Ans. Coupling is the degree of interdependence between software modules, a measure of how closely connected two modules are or the strength of the relationships between modules.

Cohesion refers to the degree to which the elements of a module belong together. Cohesion measures the strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given module.

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  Q35. Why java doesn't support multiple Inheritance ?

or

Explain Java Diamond Problem.
Core Java2017-01-09 11:45:34

Ans. class A {
void test() {
System.out.println("test() method");
}
}

class B {
void test() {
System.out.println("test() method");
}
}

Suppose if Java allows multiple inheritance like this,

class C extends A, B {
}

A and B test() methods are inheriting to C class.

So which test() method C class will take? As A & B class test() methods are different , So here we would Facing Ambiguity.

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Frequently asked at HCL Technologies ( Based on 3 feedback )
  Q36. Difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Checked exceptions are the exceptions for which compiler throws an errors if they are not checked whereas unchecked exceptions are caught during run time only and hence can't be checked.

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 Q37. What is Externalizable interface?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Externalizable is an interface which contains two methods readExternal and writeExternal. These methods give you a control over the serialization mechanism.

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  Q38. What is the use of HashCode in objects ?Core Java
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Ans. Hashcode is used for bucketing in Hash implementations like HashMap, HashTable, HashSet etc.

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  Q39. Write a Program to check if 2 strings are Anagrams ?Core Java2016-11-30 20:52:37

Ans. public void checkIfAnagram(String str1,String str2){
boolean anagram = true;
for(char c:str1.toCharArray()){
if(!str2.contains(String.valueOf(c))){
System.out.println("Strings are Anagrams");
anagram = false;
}

if(anagram == true){
System.out.println("Strings are not Anagrams");
}
}
}

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  Q40. Which Software Development methodology is being used in your current Job ?General
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Ans. We are using Agile methodology. I attend daily stand up where the development leads takes the status of assigned stories, achievements, any bottlenecks or challenges. We follow iteration of 2 weeks.

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