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 Q31. How to implement an immutable class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. We can make a class immutable by

1. Making all methods and variables as private.

2. Setting variables within constructor.

Public Class ImmutableClass{

private int member;
ImmutableClass(int var){
member=var;
}
}

and then we can initialize the object of the class as

ImmutableClass immutableObject = new ImmutableClass(5);

Now all members being private , you cant change the state of the object.

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 Q32. When do you get ClassCastException?

or

What is ClassCastException ?
Anonymous
Ans. As we only downcast class in the hierarchy, The ClassCastException is thrown to indicate that code has attempted to cast an object to a subclass of which it is not an instance.

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 Q33. Difference Between this() and super() ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. 1.this is a reference to the current object in which this keyword is used whereas super is a reference used to access members specific to the parent Class.

2.this is primarily used for accessing member variables if local variables have same name, for constructor chaining and for passing itself to some method whereas super is primarily used to initialize base class members within derived class constructor.

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 Q34. What are the Disadvantages of using Collection Classes over Arrays ?Core Java
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Ans. Collections can only hold objects, It can't hold primitive data types.

Collections have performance overheads as they deal with objects and offer dynamic memory expansion. This dynamic expansion could be a bigger overhead if the collection class needs consecutive memory location like Vectors.

Collections doesn't allow modification while traversal as it may lead to concurrentModificationException.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     java   collections   collections classes   disadvantages of collections over arrays   collections vs arrays


 Q35. What are the contents of Hibernate configuration file ( hibernate.cfg.xml ) ?Hibernate
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Ans. HBM Files ( Mapping )
DB Connection ( DB Connection String , User Name , Password , Pool Size )
SQL Dialect ( SQL variant to be generated )
Show SQL ( Show / No show SQL on Console )
Auto Commit ( True / False )

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 Q36. Why do we need Thread class even in case we execute thread using runnable interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Thread class holds the definition of start method ( This is the method that starts execution of new thread and then calls run method within the scope of new thread ). Interfaces don't hold any definition and so does runnable. So it makes it necessary the usage of Thread class , whatever implementation you choose.

When your class extends the thread class, it carries the definition of start method from parent Thread class onto itself and hence new yourClass.start() helps starting a new thread and then executing run method in that new thread scope.

When you implement runnable interface , you are just making it sure to the JVM that you have implemented the required method ( run() ) which the Thread start method will look for upon executing start method.

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 Q37. In which cases , moving methods to utility class could be useful ?Core Java

Ans. It could be worthy to move a method to util class if the method needs to be shared, doesn't require polymorphic behavior and need not be overridden in special cases.

Don't belong to one group through is-a relationship ( You can share through parent class method )

Don't implement a specific interface ( java 8 default methods )

Doesn't involve complex computing as you will be loosing the benefit of object state with just static method.

Doesn't require polymorphic behavior as static methods don't participate in runtime polymorphism.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     utility classes   util classes   static methods   application design        rare


 Q38. If an Abstract class has only abstract methods, What's the difference between such a class and an interface ?Core Java2017-05-07 07:26:29

Ans. Such a class still can have member elements which can be inherited and hence facilitate code reuse. Moreover Abstract class can have non final static elements whereas interfaces are only allowed to have static final elements.

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 Q39. What is the difference between these two method declarations ?

private static void method(String[] arg)

and

private static void method(String... arg)
Core Java2017-05-23 08:41:54

Ans. First expects the argument as a string array whereas second expects variable number of string arguments or a string array.

So we can call both by providing string array as an argument but second can be called with 0 to n string arguments which cannot be done for first.

for example - We can call second method with any of following

method();
method("Hello");
method("Hello","World");
method(new String[4]);


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 Q40. What is the difference between inner class and sub class ?Core Java2017-06-18 16:30:30

Ans. Inner Class is a class that is nested within another class whereas sub class is a class that extends or inherit another class.

Inner class can only be accessed using reference of outer class ( Class name , if inner class is static or object reference, if inner class is non static ) whereas Sub class is accessed directly.

In terms of memory, inner class is stored just like another class having it's own body whereas sub class carries the body of parent class as well as it's own fields in memory.

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   Like         Discuss         Correct / Improve     inner classes  nested classes  inner class vs sub class  nested class vs sub class      Basic


 Q41. What are the benefits of using Wrapper classes over primitive types ?Core Java2017-08-24 21:35:53

Ans. With Collection classes , we cannot use primitive types. Moreover for any class using generic types, we cannot use primitive types.

They add more functionality by means of additional methods.

As their reference can be null , they offer consistent check for uninitialized state.

They facilitate caching and reuse by means of constant Pools.

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 Q42. What is the use of Object class ?Core Java2017-09-02 15:30:43

Ans. 1. Default definition for some of the methods , like equals, hashcode etc that gets carried to all objects even if you don't define anything. But that default definition is kind of like assigning 0 to integer, it just provide a safe state , nothing much for comparison.

2. Places where you have no idea about what object you may receive and just want to perform out of 8 basic methods of object class, something like printing their string representation ( defined by their toString method ), or equality ( using their equals method )

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 Q43. Which access specifier can be used with Class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. For top level class we can only use "public" and "default". We can use private with inner class.

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 Q44. How to display and set the Class path in Unix ?
Anonymous
Ans. To display the current CLASSPATH variable, use these commands in UNIX (Bourne shell):

% echo $CLASSPATH

To delete the current contents of the CLASSPATH variable,

In UNIX: % unset CLASSPATH; export CLASSPATH

To set the CLASSPATH variable,

In UNIX: % CLASSPATH=/home/george/java/classes; export CLASSPATH

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Very Frequently asked.Favorite question in Walk in drive for many Indian service companies.
 Q45. What is a Final Class ?
Anonymous
Ans. A Class that cannot be sub classed.

  Sample Code for final class

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Very Frequently asked. Usually asked along with String Class related questions.
  Q46. What is an immutable class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Class using which only immutable (objects that cannot be changed after initialization) objects can be created.

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 Q47. Difference between boolean and Boolean ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. boolean is a primitive type whereas Boolean is a class.

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 Q48. Explain Autoboxing ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Autoboxing is the automatic conversion that the Java compiler makes between the primitive types and their corresponding object wrapper classes

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 Q49. What are Wrapper Classes ? What are Primitive Wrapper Classes ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. A wrapper class is any class which "wraps" or "encapsulates" the functionality of another class or component. A Wrapper Class that wraps or encapsulates the primitive data type is called Primitive Wrapper Class.

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 Q50. What Design pattern Wrapper Classes implement ?Design
Anonymous
Ans. Adapter.

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 Q51. What is a class loader ? What are the different class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Part of JVM which is used to load classes and interfaces.

Bootstrap , Extension and System are the class loaders used by JVM.

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Very frequently asked. Usually difference between String,StringBuffer and StringBuilder is asked in different variations.
  Q52. Difference between StringBuffer and StringBuilder ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. StringBuffer is synchronized whereas StringBuilder is not.

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 Q53. Difference between nested and inner classes ?
Anonymous
Ans. Inner class is a type of nested class.

Inner classes are non static nested classes i.e the one that are associated with the instance of outer class.

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 Q54. What is a nested interface ?
Anonymous
Ans. Any interface declared inside a class or an interface. It is static by default.

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 Q55. What are the design considerations while making a choice between using interface and abstract class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Keep it as a Abstract Class if its a "Is a" Relationsship and should do subset/all of the functionality. Keep it as Interface if its a "Should Do" relationship.

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 Q56. Will this code give error if i try to add two heterogeneous elements in the arraylist. ? and Why ?

List list1 = new ArrayList<>();
list1.add(5);
list1.add("5");
Admin
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Ans. If we don't declare the list to be of specific type, it treats it as list of objects.

int 1 is auto boxed to Integer and "1" is String and hence both are objects.

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 Q57. How are classes loaded by JVM ?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. Class loaders are hierarchical. The very first class is specially loaded with the help of static main() method declared in your class. All the subsequently loaded classes are loaded by the classes, which are already loaded and running.

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 Q58. Difference between static vs. dynamic class loading?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. static loading - Classes are statically loaded with Java new operator.

dynamic class loading - Dynamic loading is a technique for programmatically invoking the functions of a class loader at run time.

Class.forName (Test className);

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  Q59. Write a method to check if input String is Palindrome?Core Java
Admin
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Ans. private static boolean isPalindrome(String str) {

if (str == null)
return false;

StringBuilder strBuilder = new StringBuilder(str);

strBuilder.reverse();

return strBuilder.toString().equals(str);

}

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 Q60. Write a method that will remove given character from the String?Core Java
Admin
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Ans.
private static String removeChar(String str, char c) {    
if (str == null)
return null;

return str.replaceAll(Character.toString(c), "");
}


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