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Interview Questions and Answers for 'Class' - 208 question(s) found - Order By Newest

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Very frequently asked. Among first few questions in almost all interviews. Among Top 5 frequently asked questions. Frequently asked in Indian service companies (HCL,TCS,Infosys,Capgemini etc based on multiple feedback )
  Q1. Difference between == and .equals() ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. "equals" is the method of object class which is supposed to be overridden to check object equality, whereas "==" operator evaluate to see if the object handlers on the left and right are pointing to the same object in memory.

x.equals(y) means the references x and y are holding objects that are equal. x==y means that the references x and y have same object.

Sample code:

String x = new String("str");
String y = new String("str");

System.out.println(x == y); // prints false
System.out.println(x.equals(y)); // prints true

  Sample Code for equals

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Advanced level question. Frequently asked in High end product companies. Frequently asked in Cognizant and Deloitte ( Based on 2 feedback )
  Q2. Why is String immutable in Java ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. 1. String Pool - When a string is created and if it exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned instead of creating a new object. If string is not immutable, changing the string with one reference will lead to the wrong value for the other references.

Example -

String str1 = "String1";
String str2 = "String1"; // It doesn't create a new String and rather reuses the string literal from pool

// Now both str1 and str2 pointing to same string object in pool, changing str1 will change it for str2 too

2. To Cache its Hashcode - If string is not immutable, One can change its hashcode and hence it's not fit to be cached.

3. Security - String is widely used as parameter for many java classes, e.g. network connection, opening files, etc. Making it mutable might possess threats due to interception by the other code segment.

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Very frequently asked in different variations. Frequently asked in Deloitte ( 2 feedback ) , HCL Tech ( 3 feedback ) and Coginizant (CTS)
  Q3. Explain the scenerios to choose between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?

or

What is the difference between String , StringBuilder and StringBuffer ?
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. If the Object value will not change, use String Class because a String object is immutable.

If the Object value can change and will only be modified from a single thread, use StringBuilder because StringBuilder is unsynchronized(means faster).

If the Object value may change, and can be modified by multiple threads, use a StringBuffer because StringBuffer is thread safe(synchronized).

  Sample Code for String

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

  Sample Code for StringBuilder

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 Q4. What are different ways to create String Object? Explain.Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. When we create a String using double quotes, JVM looks in the String pool to find if any other String is stored with same value. If found, it just returns the reference to that String object else it creates a new String object with given value and stores it in the String pool.

When we use new operator, JVM creates the String object but dont store it into the String Pool. We can use intern() method to store the String object into String pool or return the reference if there is already a String with equal value present in the pool.

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  Q5. What do you mean by "Java is a statically typed language" ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. It means that the type of variables are checked at compile time in Java.The main advantage here is that all kinds of checking can be done by the compiler and hence will reduce bugs.

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 Q6. Why do we need Inner classes ? Cant we just work with outer classes wherever we implement Inner classes ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Yes, we can substitute outer classes wherever we need to have inner classes but Inner classes have advantage in certain cases and hence preferred -

Ease - Why to implement a class outside if its objects are only intended to be part of an outer object. Its easy to define the class within another class if the use is only local.

Protection - Making a call an outer exposes a threat of it being used by any of the class. Why should it be made an outer class if its object should only occur as part of other objects.

For example - You may like to have an class address whose object should have a reference to city and by design thats the only use of city you have in your application. Making Address and City as outer class exposes City to any of the Class. Making it an inner class of Address will make sure that its accessed using object of Address.

  Sample Code for inner class

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 Q7. Why Char array is preferred over String for storing password?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. String is immutable in java and stored in String pool. Once it's created it stays in the pool until unless garbage collected, so even though we are done with password it's available in memory for longer duration and there is no way to avoid it. It's a security risk because anyone having access to memory dump can find the password as clear text.

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Frequently asked in Infosys and HCL Technologies ( Based on 2 feedback )
 Q8. What are different ways of object creation in Java ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Using new operator - new xyzClass()

Using factory methods - xyzFactory.getInstance( )

Using newInstance( ) method - (Class.forName(xyzClass))emp.newInstance( )

By cloning an already available object - (xyzClass)obj1.clone( )

  Sample Code for object initialization using clone

  Sample Code for object initialization using getInstance

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 Q9. What is the difference between declaration, instantiation and initialization ?Core Java2016-05-26 14:17:48

Ans. Declaration is intimation to the compiler about the nature of Data a reference is going to hold.

For example - List myList;

Instantiation is reservation of memory.

For example

myList = new ArrayList();

Initialization or construction is setting the default values for member elements.

For example

myList = new ArrayList(mySet);

** Example 2nd is both for instantiation as well as initialization. The only difference is that 2nd will initialized the member elements to their default values whereas 3rd will initialized it with the elements from set.


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 Q10. What are different types of classes ?Core Java

Ans. There are different verticals in which Java Classes can be classified.

1. Access - Public , Private , default or Protected.

2. Packaging - System, library or User Defined

3. Structure - Outer or Inner

4. Object Derivation - Abstract Class or Concrete Class.

5. Object Creation - Normal, Singleton , Doubleton , Immutable or Enum.

6. Functionality - String , Util , Stream etc.

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Very frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q11. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?Core Java
admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Underlying data structure for ArrayList is Array whereas LinkedList is the linked list and hence have following differences -

1. ArrayList needs continuous memory locations and hence need to be moved to a bigger space if new elements are to be added to a filled array which is not required for LinkedList.

2. Removal and Insertion at specific place in ArrayList requires moving all elements and hence leads to O(n) insertions and removal whereas its constant O(1) for LinkedList.

3. Random access using index in ArrayList is faster than LinkedList which requires traversing the complete list through references.

4. Though Linear Search takes Similar Time for both, Binary Search using LinkedList requires creating new Model called Binary Search Tree which is slower but offers constant time insertion and deletion.

5. For a set of integers you want to sort using quicksort, it's probably faster to use an array; for a set of large structures you want to sort using selection sort, a linked list will be faster.

  Sample Code for ArrayList

  Sample Code for LinkedList

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  Q12. What is a String Pool ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. String pool (String intern pool) is a special storage area in Java heap. When a string is created and if the string already exists in the pool, the reference of the existing string will be returned, instead of creating a new object and returning its reference.

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  Q13. Explain OOPs

or

Explain OOPs Principles

or

Explain OOPs Concepts

or

Explain OOPs features

or

Tell me something about OOPs
Core Java2017-06-13 08:25:45

Ans. OOPs or Object Oriented Programming is a Programming model which is organized around Objects instead of processes. Instead of a process calling series of processes, this model stresses on communication between objects. Objects that all self sustained, provide security by encapsulating it's members and providing abstracted interfaces over the functions it performs. OOP's facilitate the following features

1. Inheritance for Code Reuse
2. Abstraction for modularity, maintenance and agility
3. Encapsulation for security and protected
4. Polymorphism for flexibility and interfacing

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Frequently asked. Favorite question in Walk in Drive of many Indian service companies.
  Q14. What are the methods of Object Class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. clone() - Creates and returns a copy of this object.

equals() - Indicates whether some other object is "equal to" this one.

finalize() - Called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

getClass() - Returns the runtime class of an object.

hashCode() - Returns a hash code value for the object.

toString() - Returns a string representation of the object.

notify(), notifyAll(), and wait() - Play a part in synchronizing the activities of independently running threads in a program.

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 Q15. Difference between Static and Singleton Class ?Core Java2016-11-30 21:00:43

Ans. 1. Static class is a class which cannot be instantiated and all its members are static whereas Singleton is the class that only permit creation of single object and then the object is reused.

2. As there is no object in Static class, it cannot participate in runtime Polymorphism.

3. As Static class doesnt allow creating objects and hence it cannot be serialized.

4. Static class body is initialized eagerly at application load time whereas Singleton object can be initiated eagerly using static blocks or lazily on first need.

5. Its not recommended to use pure static class as it fails to use many OOPs concepts.

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 Q16. What will this code print ?

String a = new String ("TEST");
String b = new String ("TEST");
if(a == b) {
System.out.println ("TRUE");
} else {
System.out.println ("FALSE");
}
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. FALSE. == operator compares object references, a and b are references to two different objects, hence the FALSE. .equals method is used to compare string object content.

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Very Frequently asked. Have been asked in HCL Technologies very frequently ( based on 3 feedback ). Among first few questions in many interviews.
  Q17. Differences between abstract class and interface ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Abstract classes can have both abstract methods ( method declarations ) as well as concrete methods ( inherited to the derived classes ) whereas Interfaces can only have abstract methods ( method declarations ).

A class can extend single abstract class whereas it can implement multiple interfaces.

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 Q18. What is the difference between the following two code lines ?

1. new OuterClass().new InnerClass();

2. new OuterClass.InnerClass();
Core Java2016-06-30 14:45:37

Ans. In first case we are trying to initialize Inner class object using the instance of Outer Class whereas in second case we are trying to initialize the Inner class object directly using the Outer class name.

In second case , Inner class is "static inner class" as we cannot access "non static inner class" using Classname alone.

In first case, the inner class could be either "static inner class" or "non static inner class".

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 Q19. Which of the following can be marked static ?

a. Methods , Variables and Initialization Blocks.
b. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and Outer Classes and nested Classes.
c. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and Outer Classes.
d. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and nested Classes
Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Methods , Variables , Initialization Blocks and nested Classes

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Almost sure to be asked in every company using any Dependency Injection framework ( Spring, Guice etc )
  Q20. What is Dependency Injection or IOC ( Inversion of Control ) ?Design

Ans. It is a Design Pattern that facilitates loose coupling by sending the dependency information ( object references of dependent object ) while building the state of the object. Objects are designed in a manner where they receive instances of the objects from other pieces of code, instead of constructing them internally and hence provide better flexibility.

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 Q21. Can you give a real world example of Encapsulation and Abstraction ?Core Java2016-05-29 13:47:31

Ans. Car Engine is an example of encapsulation and abstraction. You ignite the car using an interface called starter and least bothered about how the tire actually moves (This is abstraction). The engine encapsulates the complete process to itself only and doesn't allow you to start the other components like the radiator etc ( this is excapsulation )

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 Q22. Which of the following are valid declarations

1. void method(int... x){};
2. void method(int.. x){};
3. void method(int.. .x){};
4. void method(int ...x){};
5. void method(int... x){};
6. void method(int ... x){};
7. void method(int x, int... y){};
8. void method(int... x, int y){};
9. void method(int... x,int... y){};
Core Java2017-05-22 21:22:57

Ans. 1st is a valid and standard declaration.

2nd results in compilation error as only 2 dots are there.

3rd results in compilation error as three dots are not consecutive and broken.

4 through 6 may not be standard and ideal way of declarations but they are valid and will compile and work fine.

7 is valid declaration.

8 and 9 will result in compilation error as var args can only be provided to last argument.

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  Q23. What are the different types of inner classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. Simple Inner Class,
Local Inner Class,
Anonymous Inner Class,
Static Nested Inner Class.

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 Q24. What are the Wrapper classes available for primitive types ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. boolean - java.lang.Boolean
byte - java.lang.Byte
char - java.lang.Character
double - java.lang.Double
float - java.lang.Float
int - java.lang.Integer
long - java.lang.Long
short - java.lang.Short
void - java.lang.Void

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 Q25. Which String class does not override the equals() and hashCode() methods, inheriting them directly from class Object?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. java.lang.StringBuffer.

  Sample Code for StringBuffer

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 Q26. What are wrapper classes ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. They are wrappers to primitive data types. They allow us to access primitives as objects.

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Advanced level question. Recently asked in few Indian service companies ( Based on 3 inputs )
 Q27. What are various types of Class loaders used by JVM ?Core Java
Admin
info@buggybread.com
Ans. Bootstrap - Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages.

Extensions - Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory - usually lib/ext directory of the JRE

System - Loads classes from system classpath.

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 Q28. Difference Between this() and super() ?Core Java
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Ans. 1.this is a reference to the current object in which this keyword is used whereas super is a reference used to access members specific to the parent Class.

2.this is primarily used for accessing member variables if local variables have same name, for constructor chaining and for passing itself to some method whereas super is primarily used to initialize base class members within derived class constructor.

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 Q29. What are the Disadvantages of using Collection Classes over Arrays ?Core Java
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Ans. Collections can only hold objects, It can't hold primitive data types.

Collections have performance overheads as they deal with objects and offer dynamic memory expansion. This dynamic expansion could be a bigger overhead if the collection class needs consecutive memory location like Vectors.

Collections doesn't allow modification while traversal as it may lead to concurrentModificationException.

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Very frequently asked in companies using SOA.
  Q30. What are RESTful Web Services ?Rest
Admin
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Ans. REST or Representational State Transfer is a flexible architecture style for creating web services that recommends the following guidelines -

1. http for client server communication,
2. XML / JSON as formatiing language ,
3. Simple URI as address for the services and,
4. stateless communication.

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 Q31. What are the contents of Hibernate configuration file ( hibernate.cfg.xml ) ?Hibernate
Admin
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Ans. HBM Files ( Mapping )
DB Connection ( DB Connection String , User Name , Password , Pool Size )
SQL Dialect ( SQL variant to be generated )
Show SQL ( Show / No show SQL on Console )
Auto Commit ( True / False )

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 Q32. Why do we need Thread class even in case we execute thread using runnable interface ?Core Java
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Ans. Thread class holds the definition of start method ( This is the method that starts execution of new thread and then calls run method within the scope of new thread ). Interfaces don't hold any definition and so does runnable. So it makes it necessary the usage of Thread class , whatever implementation you choose.

When your class extends the thread class, it carries the definition of start method from parent Thread class onto itself and hence new yourClass.start() helps starting a new thread and then executing run method in that new thread scope.

When you implement runnable interface , you are just making it sure to the JVM that you have implemented the required method ( run() ) which the Thread start method will look for upon executing start method.

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 Q33. In which cases , moving methods to utility class could be useful ?Core Java

Ans. It could be worthy to move a method to util class if the method needs to be shared, doesn't require polymorphic behavior and need not be overridden in special cases.

Don't belong to one group through is-a relationship ( You can share through parent class method )

Don't implement a specific interface ( java 8 default methods )

Doesn't involve complex computing as you will be loosing the benefit of object state with just static method.

Doesn't require polymorphic behavior as static methods don't participate in runtime polymorphism.

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 Q34. If an Abstract class has only abstract methods, What's the difference between such a class and an interface ?Core Java2017-05-07 07:26:29

Ans. Such a class still can have member elements which can be inherited and hence facilitate code reuse. Moreover Abstract class can have non final static elements whereas interfaces are only allowed to have static final elements.

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 Q35. What is the difference between these two method declarations ?

private static void method(String[] arg)

and

private static void method(String... arg)
Core Java2017-05-23 08:41:54

Ans. First expects the argument as a string array whereas second expects variable number of string arguments or a string array.

So we can call both by providing string array as an argument but second can be called with 0 to n string arguments which cannot be done for first.

for example - We can call second method with any of following

method();
method("Hello");
method("Hello","World");
method(new String[4]);


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 Q36. What is the difference between inner class and sub class ?Core Java2017-06-18 16:30:30

Ans. Inner Class is a class that is nested within another class whereas sub class is a class that extends or inherit another class.

Inner class can only be accessed using reference of outer class ( Class name , if inner class is static or object reference, if inner class is non static ) whereas Sub class is accessed directly.

In terms of memory, inner class is stored just like another class having it's own body whereas sub class carries the body of parent class as well as it's own fields in memory.

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 Q37. What are the benefits of using Wrapper classes over primitive types ?Core Java2017-08-24 21:35:53

Ans. With Collection classes , we cannot use primitive types. Moreover for any class using generic types, we cannot use primitive types.

They add more functionality by means of additional methods.

As their reference can be null , they offer consistent check for uninitialized state.

They facilitate caching and reuse by means of constant Pools.

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 Q38. What is the use of Object class ?Core Java2017-09-02 15:30:43

Ans. 1. Default definition for some of the methods , like equals, hashcode etc that gets carried to all objects even if you don't define anything. But that default definition is kind of like assigning 0 to integer, it just provide a safe state , nothing much for comparison.

2. Places where you have no idea about what object you may receive and just want to perform out of 8 basic methods of object class, something like printing their string representation ( defined by their toString method ), or equality ( using their equals method )

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 Q39. Which access specifier can be used with Class ?Core Java
Anonymous
Ans. For top level class we can only use "public" and "default". We can use private with inner class.

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 Q40. How to display and set the Class path in Unix ?
Anonymous
Ans. To display the current CLASSPATH variable, use these commands in UNIX (Bourne shell):

% echo $CLASSPATH

To delete the current contents of the CLASSPATH variable,

In UNIX: % unset CLASSPATH; export CLASSPATH

To set the CLASSPATH variable,

In UNIX: % CLASSPATH=/home/george/java/classes; export CLASSPATH

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